Prehistoric Period

? Prehistoric period :- Races and culture The distant past when there was no paper or language or the written word, and hence no books or written document, is called as the Prehistoric period. It was difficult to understand how Prehistoric people lived until scholars began excavations in Prehistoric sites.Piecing together of information deduced … Read more

The Vedas For All

? The Vedas for all – The Casteless society The Sanatana Dharma during Vedic era had never endorsed caste system. Thus restoration of true Sanatana Dharma alone would create a casteless society in India. The caste is always a British invention which enumerated based on occupation. But true definition of ‘Jaati’ as per Veda … Read more

Not Found Comparative Study Of Indian And Western Philosophy

? Comparative Study of Indian and Western Philosophy Philosophy is the root of all knowledge. It is considered as mother of all sciences. Philosophy has interpreted man and his various activities in a comprehensive manner. It helps to coordinate the various activities of the individuals and the society. It helps us to understand the … Read more

Development Of Railway (1)

? Development of Railway, Industralization and constitutional development during British period   Railway The British created the Indian Railways. They envisioned it, planned it, engineered it and instructed poor Indian laborers how to build it. There is a common misconception that the British “gifted” India the Railways. Nothing could be more wrong. The British … Read more

The Nawabs Of Awadh

? Nawab Saadat Khan (1722-1739)   The power of the shaikhzadas remained paramount and unchallenged until Saadat Khan stepped into Lucknow. Being appointed Subedar in 1722 Saadat Khan laid the foundation of Awadh dynasty of the Shia Nawabs of Iranian lineage based first at Faizabad and later at Lucknow. He died in 1739 A.D. … Read more

Krishna Raja

? Krishna raja Wodeyar lll – his contributions  Wodeyar Dynasty during British rule played a most vital role in developing Mysore, as princely State. Wodeyar Dynasty also spelt as Wodeyar Dynasty, an Indian royal dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Mysore from 1399 to 1947, until the sovereignty of India from rule of British Government in India and the … Read more

Contribution Of Aryabhatta In Mathematics

? Contribution of aryabhatta in mathematics Number notation Numerical values He made a notation system in which digits are denoted with the help of alphabet numerals e.g., 1 = ka, 2 = Kha, etc. Aryabhatta assigned numerical values to the 33 consonants of the Indian alphabet to represent 1,2,3…25,30,40,50,60,70,80,90,100. Notation system  He invented a … Read more

Lord Auckland

?   Lord Auckland, 1836-42   INTRODUCTION Lord Auckland was the Governor-General of India and had decided that Dost Mohammed could no longer be trusted after his invitation of Yan Vitkevich to Kabul in 1837. He sided with the pro-British Ranjit Singh in the border dispute over Peshawar. It was … Read more

Development Of Posts And Telegraph During The British Rule

? Development of Posts and Telegraph:-   Posts Britain’s involvement in the postal services of India began in the eighteenth century. Initially the service was administered by the East India Company who established post offices in Mumbai, Chennai and Calcutta (now Kolkata) between 1764 and 1766. East India Company and the British Post Office … Read more

2.origin Of Aryans

?     The Aryans came to India in several waves. The earliest wave is represented by the Rig Vedic people who appeared in the subcontinent in about 1500 BC. They came into conflict with the indigenous inhabitants called the Dravidians mentioned as Dasa or Dasyus in Rig Veda. The Rig Veda mentions the … Read more

Narayana Guru Social Reforms

? Narayana Guru social reforms Sri Narayana Guru was a prophet, sage and Hindu saint and also a social reformer of India. He was born in the family of Ezhavas, in a period when people from backward communities, like, the Ezhavas faced much social injustices in the caste-ridden Kerala society. Gurudevan, as he was … Read more

Saints And Social Reformers Of Uttarakhand

? Saints and Social Reformers of Uttarakhand Reminiscenes (Nantin Baba) The word Nantin, in the Uttarakhand parlance, connotes a child, and baba means a saint. Thus, Nantin baba means a child saint. A very young sadhu was first noticed roaming in the area extending from Bhowali to Gethia, near Nainital. Soon he … Read more

Missionary Activities In India (1)

? Missionary activities in India There are two views among scholars about the origin of Christianity in India. According to one, the foundation of the Christian church in India was laid by Saint Thomas, one of the twelve Apostles of Jesus. The other view would ascribe the arrival of Christianity in India to the … Read more

Nanda Dynasty

? Nanda dynasty Nanda dynasty, family that ruled Magadha, in northern India, between c. 343 and 321 BCE. The Nanda dynasty immediately preceded the dynasty of the Mauryas, and, as with all pre-Maurya dynasties, what is known about it is a mixture of fact and legend. Indigenous traditions, both Brahmanical and Jaina, suggest that … Read more

Comparative Study Of Indian And Western Philosophy (5)

? Comparative study of Indian and western philosophy To characterize Indian philosophy as wholly spiritualistic is as much wrong as to characterize Western philosophy as wholly materialistic. Nor can we say Western philosophy is wholly scientific, rational and ethical, while Indian philosophy is wholly apologetic based on faith and mysticism. Such characterization is wrong … Read more

Philosophy Of Charvaka

? Philosophy of Charvaka Charvaka originally known as Lok?yata and B?rhaspatya, is the ancient school of Indian materialism. Charvaka holds direct perception, empiricism, and conditional inference as proper sources of knowledge, embraces philosophical skepticism and rejects Vedas, Vedic ritualism, and supernaturalism.  Ajita Kesakambali is credited as the forerunner of the Charvakas, while Brihaspati is … Read more

The Hoyasalas

? The Hoyasalas Hoysala dynasty, family that ruled in India from about 1006 to about 1346 CE in the southern Deccan and for a time in the Kaveri (Cauvery) River valley. The first kings came from the hills northwest of Dorasamudra (present-day Halebid), which became their capital about 1060. With their hardy hill-dwelling, Kannada-speaking … Read more

Unity And Universality Of Religions (2)

? Unity and universality of religions, religious tolerance and secularism Unity of religions All religions have one common ideal, worship of the Lord, and all of them proclaim that there is but one God. This one God accepts your devotion irrespective of the manner of your worship, whether it is according to this or … Read more

Growth Of Socialist And Communist Movements In British India

? Growth of Socialist and Communist Movements in British India Socialists in congress For first few years after the formation of Indian National Congress the Liberals who dominated over country’s political scene and led freedom struggle were Rightists. They had no contacts with the masses. They, believed in British sense of justice and were … Read more

Magadh With Special Emphasis On Uttar Pradesh

? Magadh with reference to Uttar Pradesh All the states were perpetually at war with each other. Kaushal annexed Kashi  and Avanti grabbed Vats. Later on Kausha and Vats in turn were subjugated one by one by Magadh, which became most powerful in the entire region. Magadh was ruled in succession by Haryank, Shishunag … Read more

Ancient Kingdom

?   Rajrishitulya kul Rajrishitulya kul dynasty ruled over the south Kaushal. They ruled from 5th to 6th century AD. From the bronze inscription it is known that they followed Gupt samvata. This shows that accepted the supremacy of the Gupta Dynasty. There are six known rulers of the Rajrishikulya Dynasty. They are all … Read more

Indian Freedom Struggle 6

? Satyagraha – A holistic approach towards life, based on the ideals of truth and moral courage. Satyagraha’s goal is winning over people’s hearts, and this can be achieved only with tremendous patience, Satyagraha is more than a political tool of resistance. The similarities of the Satyagraha to some of the greatest philosophical and … Read more

Effects Of Aasana And Pranayama On Health (2)

? Effects of Aasana and Pranayama on health Improves your flexibility Improved flexibility is one of the first and most obvious benefits of yoga. During your first class, you probably won’t be able to touch your toes, never mind do a backbend. But if you stick with it, you’ll notice a gradual loosening, and … Read more

Armed Rebellion

? Armed rebellion in Karnataka against the British in Karnataka           The micro-stories from different parts of Karnataka during the early decades of 19th century give us an indication of the wide-spread nature of anti-colonial struggles in different parts of India. Clearly they had spread among commoners and gentry and … Read more

Development Of Railway

? Development of Railway:- The romance of train travel in India is legendary, but the task of constructing the railways in the first place was daunting. There were huge problems in dealing with such a vast and inhospitable country. The idea of introducing railways to India had been mooted as early as the 1830s. … Read more

5.the Rise Of Magadha Kingdom

?   In the sixth country B.C. North India was divided into sixteen kingdoms out of which Avanti, Vatsa, Kosala and Magadha rose into prominence by aggrandizing upon other weaker states.These four states involved themselves in internecine quarrel in which Magadha emerged as the most powerful state and acquired mastery in the political domain … Read more

Pre Medival

? Harsha or Harshvardhana (590-647) ruled Northern India for over forty years. He was the son of Prabhakar Vardhan and younger brother of Rajyavardhan, king of Thaneshwar. At the height of his power his kingdom spanned the Punjab, Bengal, Orissa and the entire Indo Gangetic plain. As a consequence to the coronation of Harshavardhana, … Read more

9.Harsha Vardhan

? Emperor Harshavardhana, better known as Harsha, lived from 590 to 647 CE and was the third ruler of the Vardhana Empire, the last great empire in ancient India before the Islamic Invasion. He ruled from 606 CE to 647 CE. After Harshavardhana’s death, however, the Vardhana dynasty came to an end and its empire dissolved. India, the land … Read more

Lord William Bentick

? Lord William Bentick (1828-1835) Introduction Lord William Bentinck assumed the office of the Governor- General in 1828. Born in 1774 he commenced his career as a soldier and later at the young age of twenty two he became a Member of Parliament. He was appointed the Governor of Madras in 1803. He supported … Read more

Delhi Sultanate

? The Delhi Sultanate basically refers to the Muslim rulers who ruled India through Delhi. This basically came into existence after Mohammed Ghori captured Delhi after defeating Prithviraj. After Prithviraj was captured, the Delhi Sultanate went into the hands of one of Ghori’s generals known as Qutub-ud-din Aibak. During the end of the 12th … Read more

Anglo Mysore

? Anglo –Mysore Wars The Anglo–Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought in over the last three decades of the 18th century between the Kingdom of Mysore on the one hand, and the British East India Company (represented chiefly by the Madras Presidency), and Maratha Confederacy and the Nizam of Hyderabad on the … Read more

7.The Kushanas

? The Kushanas: Short introduction In the early 2nd century BC, a tribe on the Central Asian frontier of China called Hsiung-nu defeated a neighboring one known as Yueh-chih. After more conflict, the survivors of the Yueh-chih were dislocated west, passing down the Ili river valley and along the southern shore of lake Issyk … Read more

DILWARA TEMPLES (1)

?                   DILWARA TEMPLES:-                                   The exquisitely carved marble temples of Dilwara in Mount Abu are the finest examples of Jain temples in India. The hallmark of these temples is the crisp translucent shell like treatment of marble, which surpasses anything seen elsewhere. The ornamental detail Spread over the minutely carved decoration … Read more

Paramar Dynasty

? Paramar dynasty In the ninth century, The Paramara / Puar / Panwar dynasty originated in the Mount Abu region of Rajasthan and later ruled over the Malwa region in central India. They ruled from their capital at Dh?r?nagara, the present day Dhar city in Madhya Pradesh. The Paramara rulers were appointed as governors … Read more

Vishnukundins

? Vishnukundins The Vishnukundina Empire was one of the Middle kingdoms of India, controlling the Deccan, Orissa and parts of South India during the 5th and 6th centuries, carving land out from the Vakataka Empire. It played an important role in the history of the Deccan during the 5th and 6th centuries CE. The … Read more

Gram Swaraj

? Gram Swaraj, Satyagraha and Bhoodana Gram Swaraj Gram swaraj, or village self-rule, was a pivotal concept in Gandhi’s thinking. It was the centerpiece of his vision of economic development in India. Gandhiji’s Gram Swaraj was not the reconstruction of the old village but the formation of fresh independent units of villages having self-sufficient … Read more

Printing Press In India During British Rule

? Printing press in india during british rule The press as we know it today was, however, brought to India in the wake of British rule. Under the rule of the East India Company, there was the possibility of interesting news and some enterprising journalists set up printing presses in India to expose the … Read more

The Chauhans

? Origins According to the Rajput bards, Chauhan is one of the four Agnikula or ‘fire sprung’ clans who were created by the Gods in the anali kund or ‘fountain of fire’ on Mount Abu to fight against the Asuras or demons. Chauhan is also one of the 36 ruling races of the Rajputs. … Read more

Lord Wellesley

? Lord Wellesley (1789-1805) INTRODUCTION Lord Wellesley became the Governor General of India at a time when the British were involved in a life and death struggle with France all over the world. He soon realized that the political conditions in India were favorable for the expansion of the British Empire in India. Lord … Read more

Maharshi Karve

? Maharshi Karve Dhondo Keshav Karve, (born April 18, 1858, Sheravali, India—died November 9, 1962, Poona (Pune), Indian social reformer and educator, noted for supporting the education of women and for organizing associations for the remarriage of Hindu widows.  While an instructor in mathematics (1891–1914) at Fergusson College, Poona, Karve became concerned with breaking … Read more

Development Of Press

? Development of Press, Railway, Press and Telegraph, Industries in British India   Development of Press:- The first press in India was established by the Portuguese in 1550, first book was published by Portuguese missionaries (1557). The next was established by British in 1684. James Augustus Hickey is considered as the “father of Indian … Read more

Development Of Industries During The British Rule

? Development of Industries:- Industrial Development in India during the British Rule:- 1. Subject Matter of Industrial Development 2. Early Efforts of Industrialization 3. Industries in the Inter-War Period (1919-38) 4. Industries during 1939-47 5. Reasons for Low Industrial Development in India.   Subject Matter of Industrial Development: Underdeveloped countries are greatly handicapped by shortage of capital … Read more

Great Revolt Of 1857

? The Great Revolt of 1857 (also Indian rebellion of 1857, the Great uprising of 1857, the Great rebellion, Indian Sepoy mutiny) is regarded as India’s First War of Independence against the British rule. It was the most remarkable single event in the history of India after the establishment of British rule. It was the … Read more

Non Alignment Movement

? Non Alignment Movement One of the basic tenets of our foreign policy has been non-alignment. As an element of foreign policy non-alignment m e a n s i n d e p e n d e n t o f b l o c s , peaceful coexistence, global peace, disarmament, struggle against … Read more

Inter Religious Unity And Communalism In British India

? Inter Religious Unity and Communalism in British India This country was under the colonial rule of the British and after a long struggle gained freedom in 1947. In 1949, the constituent assembly enacted the new constitution which came into effect in 1950. Thus, the contemporary history of this country can be divided into … Read more

Tuglaq

? Tughlaq Dynasty : Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, , Firoz Shah Tughlaq     Tughlaq Dynasty   Third of the five dynasties that ruled Delhi, the Tughluq Dynasty was, perhaps, one of the strongest of the Delhi Sultanates.The Tughlaqs were basically of Turkish origin and the family was essentially Muslim. Around the year 1321, Ghazi Tughlaq … Read more

Kadambas2

? From Kadambas to Hoysalas: contributions in the field of        architecture, sculpture, literature and religion.     The origins of the rise of the Karnataka region as an independent state trace back to the fourth-century A.D.  with the  birth of the Kadamba Dynasty of Banavasi after the disintegration of  Satavahana power in deccan.  The founder of this … Read more

Contribution Of Brahma Gupta

? Contribution of  Brahma gupta, in mathematics Brahmagupta was born in 598 A.D.in Bhinmal city in the state of Rajasthan. He was a mathematician and astronomer, who wrote many important works on mathematics and astronomy. His best known work is the “Brahmasphuta?siddhanta”, written in 628 AD in Bhinmal. He was the first to use … Read more

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