Protein Synthesis

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Proteins are the end product of many metabolic processes. A typical cell requires thousands of different protein molecules at any given moment. So, the protein requirements of a particular cell has to be satisfied by synthesizing them at site or has to be transferred from where it is being synthesized. This is in … Read more

10.07.17 JPSC (Jharkhand) current affairs

Jharkhand   Jharkhand to set up skill development centres in 30 colleges.   The state higher education and technical department listed 12 trades for students who have completed their Plus Two level of education this year and selected 30 colleges across the state to set up skill development centres.   Among 30 colleges selected, 11 are women’s colleges where students who … Read more

Medallion Inheritance – Monohybrid and Dihybrid cross

MENDELIAN INHERITENCE Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900. These laws were initially very controversial. When Mendel’s theories were integrated with the Boveri–Sutton chromosome theory of inheritance by Thomas Hunt Morgan in 1915, they became the core … Read more

Energy demand of the country

The primary energy consumption in India is the third biggest after China and USA with 5.5% global share in 2016.The electricity generation target of conventional sources for the year 2017-18 has been fixed as 1229.400 Billion Unit (BU). i.e. growth of around 5.97% over actual conventional generation of 1160.141 BU for the previous year (2016-17). The conventional … Read more

National Health Policy : national programmes for prevention and control of Malaria, Leprosy,T.B., Cancer, Aids, Blindness etc

The primary aim of the National Health Policy, 2017, is to inform, clarify, strengthen and prioritize the role of the Government in shaping health systems in all its dimensions- investments in health, organization of healthcare services, prevention of diseases and promotion of good health through cross sectoral actions, access to technologies, developing human resources, encouraging … Read more

Data Programmes

A computer program is a collection of instructions that performs a specific task when executed by a computer. A computer requires programs to function and typically executes the program’s instructions in a central processing unit.A computer program is usually written by a computer programmer in a programming language. Computer language or programming language is a … Read more

Possible adverse effects of biotechnological interventions

Biotechnology through Genetic engineering has made food crops more resistant to disease, but the mere act of modification of the naturally selected food crops may actually disturb the delicate balance of biodiversity which exists in nature causing a disturbance to the natural balance. The production of GMOs has negative impacts on the natural ecosystem which … Read more

Cyber-crime and cyber laws

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY LAW INCLUDING CYBER LAWS (CONCEPTS, PURPOSE, PROSPECTS) In India, cyber laws are contained in the Information Technology Act, 2000 (“IT Act”) which came into force on October 17, 2000. The main purpose of the Act is to provide legal recognition to electronic commerce and to facilitate filing of electronic records with the Government. … Read more

Use of Biotechnology in agriculture, animal breeding, pharmaceuticals, food technology, and environmental conservation

Biotechnology and its Applications Biotechnology is defined as the industrial application of living organisms and their biological processes such as biochemistry, microbiology, and genetic engineering, in order to make best use of the microorganisms for the benefit of mankind. Modern biotechnology provides breakthrough products and technologies to combat debilitating and rare diseases, reduce our environmental … Read more

Role of Public Sector enterprises in India’s industrialization in post reforms period; Disinvestment and Privatisation of Pubiic Enterprises

Public sector has played an important role in achieving industrial self reliance. Iron and steel, railway equipment, petroleum, coal and fertilizer industries, have been developed in this sector. These industries were established in industrially backward regions. During the seventh five year plan an emphasis was laid on high technology, high value addition and knowledge based … Read more

Problems of SMEs

MSMEs not only play crucial role in providing large employment opportunities at comparatively lower capital cost than large industries but also help in industrialization of rural & backward areas, thereby, reducing regional imbalances, assuring more equitable distribution of national income and wealth. MSMEs are complementary to large industries as ancillary units and this sector contributes … Read more

Industrial development and Economic reforms in India : Major changes in industrial policy, its impact on industrial growth

The Indian Government had undertaken industrial policy reforms since 1980, but the most radical reforms have occurred since 1991, after the severe economic crisis in fiscal year 1990-91. These reforms mainly aim  at enhancing the efficiency and international competitiveness in Indian industry. India’s industrial policy of 1991 towards liberalisation, deregulation, market orientation has been hailed … Read more

Agricultural sector reforms and its impact on growth; issues of subsidies and public investment on agriculture, reforms and agrarian crisis

Indian Agriculture is the Mainstay of Indian Economy.Since independence, undergone a change from being the sector contributing the highest share to the GDP to one contributing the lowest share.Agriculture is a state subject. GDP contribution (Agriculture and allied sector) 5 pc in 1950-51 7 pc in 2008-09 and 14.6 pc in 2009-10. It was 19 pc … Read more

Scheduled Commercial Banks

Table of Content:- Role of Commercial Banks Issue of NPA Financial Inclusion A Commercial bank is a type of financial institution that provides services such as accepting deposits, making business loans, and offering basic investment products There is acute shortage of capital. People lack initiative and enterprise. Means of transport are undeveloped. Industry is depressed. The commercial … Read more

rural banking impact on rural credit:sources and problems of rural credit, institutional credit,SHG, micro finance, NABARD, RRBs

68.84% of the population in India is rural based and majority of them depends on agriculture for a living. Enhanced and stable growth of the agriculture sector is important as it plays a vital role not only in generating purchasing power among the rural population by creating on-farm and off-farm employment opportunities but also through … Read more

Financial and Banking sector reforms

The Banking System at the time of independence was largely urban oriented and remained out of reach of rural population. Commercial Banks mostly confined their lending to trade, commerce and industry and treated agriculture as a non priority. Security- oriented lending was the order of the day. Banks did not pay any attention to the … Read more

Hormones – Plant hormones and growth regulation.Animal hormones and their functions.

HORMONES Hormones are chemical messengers that are secreted directly into the blood, which carries them to organs and tissues of the body to exert their functions. There are many types of hormones that act on different aspects of bodily functions and processes. Some of these include: Development and growth Metabolism of food items Sexual function … Read more

Horticulture and Irrigation of Jharkhand

Horticulture Plantation and Horticulture sector is one of the important sub sectors agriculture, having ample scope for expansion in the State of Jharkhand. The total area. occupied by various Plantation and Hoticulture (P&H) crop in the State is about 2.57 lakh ha., with an estimated total production of 37.85 lakh  tones  The share of P&H … Read more

Jharkhand Agriculture Part 2

                                           Agriculture   Pattern of Land utilization : Area for Land utilization NA, Forests NA.  Not available for cultivation NA. Permanent pastures and other grazing lands NA. Land under misc. Tree crops and  groves NA. culturable waste land NA. Fallow lands other than current fallows NA. current fallows NA. Net area sown NA. Area  sown … Read more

Moderates and Extremists in Indian Independence Struggle

Early phase of Indian National Congress was that of Moderators,They expected that if the problems of’ the nation were brought to light through proper propaganda, the colonial government would take steps to improve matters. Thus in the initial years through lectures, writings in newspapers the nationalists put forward the main problems of the nation and … Read more

Struggle for Raising Women’s status : Abolition of Sati System, Widow Marriage Act, Consent Bill,Stress on Female education

Struggle for Raising Women’s status Patriarchy remains deeply entrenched in Indian social structure, influencing the structure of its political and social institutions and determining the opportunities open to women and men. The negotiation and conflict between patriarchy and the women’s movement are central to the Struggle for Raising Women’s status in Indian Society. Ignorance and … Read more

Social Reforms Movements in Muslim Community : Wahabi Movement & AliRarh Movement

The Muslims reformers in India launched many religious movements. Some tried to revive the religion and other tried to reform the religion. During the 19th century religion reforms movement were on the peak. Movements like Deoband Movement, Ahamadiya movement, Aligarh Movement; Wahabi Movement has influenced the masses and made them think about their religion and … Read more

Indo Islamic Architecture

The Ghurid occupation of India at the close of the 12 century A.D has shown the seeds of Indo-Islamic architecture in the Indian Subcontinent . The Muslims having inherited a wealth of varied designs from Sassanian and Byzantine empires and being naturally endowed with good taste for buildings, never failed to adapt to their own … Read more

ENZYMES

ENZYMES Enzyme, a substance that acts as a catalyst in living organisms, regulating the rate at which chemical reactions proceed without itself being altered in the process. The biological processes that occur within all living organisms are chemical reactions, and most are regulated by enzymes. Without enzymes, many of these reactions would not take place … Read more

Social Reforms Movements in Hindu Community : Brahma Samaj, Arya Samaj, Ram Krishna Mission, Prarthann Samaj and Theosophical Society of India.

Reformers like Raja Rammohan Roy, Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar, Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Jyotiba Phule, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Pandita Ramabai understood that ignorance and backwardness in the society was responsible for hindering its progress and development. They studied the religious scriptures and criticized the prevalent religious and social practices. According to them, society should be based … Read more

Nuclear Energy : its merits and demerits

Nuclear Energy Introduction Global energy demand continues to climb as the industrialized world’s energy use rises, millions pull themselves out of poverty in developing countries, and the world population expands. Thus, the debate over the energy supply of the future intensifies. This debate is complicated by ongoing global climate destabilization as a result of green … Read more

TRENDS IN NUCLEAR POLICY, NPT AND CTBT

  Nuclear policy of india Important points of india’s nuclear policy are as follows: Building and maintaining a credible minimum deterrent. nuclear weapons will only be used in retaliation against a nuclear attack on Indian Territory or on Indian forces elsewhere. Nuclear retaliation to a first strike will be massive and designed to inflict unacceptable … Read more

National Policy for Science and Technology

The thrust of the Scientific Policy Resolution, 1958 was on capacity-building in advancement of science as the foundation for making a strong nation, which had just freed itself from the shackles of colonial domination . The focus of the Technology Policy Statement, 1983 was attainment of technological self-reliance and building of national strength by reducing … Read more

Development of Hindi and Urdu Language

Hindi and Urdu are two Hindustani Languages; spoken mostly in the northern and Central India and in Pakistan. Hindi and Urdu are two different languages but these languages have many common things. Both Hindi and Urdu are developed in a similar phase and adopted many changes. We will discuss about the development of both the … Read more

Religious Movements: Sufism

‘Sufism’ is a term used to refer to mystical religious ideas in Islam. It had evolved into a well developed movement by the 11 century. Sufis, stress on the importance of traversing the path of the Sufi pir enabling one to establish a direct communion with the divine. Sufism or mysticism emerged in the 8 … Read more

Revolt of 1857

Introduction During the Governor-General Lord Canning May 11, 1857. The Meerut incident. Capture of Delhi. Proclaiming B S Jazar as the emperor. Almost half the Company’s sepoy strength of 232224 opted out of their loyalty to their regimental colours. Kanpur: Nana Saheb; Lucknow: Begum Hazrat Mahal; Bareilly: Khan Bahadur; Jagdishpur (Ara): Kunwar Singh; Jhansi: Rani … Read more

Resistance to Colonial Rule; Peasant; Tribal and Cultural Renaissance

Civil Rebellions and Tribal Uprisings The backbone of the rebellions, their mass base and striking power came from the rack-rented peasants, ruined artisans and demobilized soldiers CAUSES The major cause of the civil rebellions was the rapid changes the British introduced in the economy, administration and land revenue system. The revenues were enhanced by increasing … Read more

Beginning of European settlements:Formation and growth of East India Company; Consolidation of British power in India : Battles of Plassey and Buxar; Control over Mysore; Subsidiary Alliance; Doctrine of Lapse; Doctrine of Escheat

Beginning of European settlements:Formation and growth of East India Company;  Luxury goods produced in east asian countries such as pepper, spices such as cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg, silks, cottons, tea and coffee were in great demand in Europe.These luxury goods from the East Indies came to Europe in small quantities via complex trade routes. Several … Read more

Leadership and its qualities

Leadership is the process, which influences the people and inspires them to willingly accomplish the organisational objectives. The main purpose of managerial leadership isto gets willing cooperation of the workgroup to achieve the goals. Leadership is the ability to persuade and motivate others to work in desired way for achieving the goals. Thus, a person … Read more

Public Administration and management: Meaning, nature and significance

The English word  administer‘ is derived from a combination of two Latin words and ?ministrate‘ meaning ?to serve or manage‘. Literally, the term means management the affairs of public or private. Administration refers to mobilisation of resources – human and material- to achieve pre-set of objectives. Administration is thus an activity undertaken in pursuit of … Read more

VITAMINS

VITAMINS Vitamins are organic compounds which are needed in small quantities to sustain life. We need to take vitamins from food because the human body either does not produce enough of them or none at all. There are two types of vitamins: Fat-soluble vitamins: Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the fatty tissues of the body … Read more

Religious Movements: The Bhakti movement

The Bhakti movement in Indian history represents a movement that popularized devotional surrender to a personally conceived supreme God. Its origins are traced to the Brahamanical and Buddhist traditions of ancient India. It was in south India that it grew from a religious tradition into a popular movement based on religious equality and broad based … Read more

The Mongol invasion of India

During Sultan Qutb-ud-din Aibak’s time, the Mongols, appeared in the East of India and emerged as a great power under the leadership of Genghiz Khan (1165-1227). He was born in 1165 to Yesugei and Hoelun. He was brought up by his ablest mother Hoelun after his father was poisoned to death by Tatars. In his … Read more

The Delhi Sultanate : Market and Military Reforms of Allauddin Khilji;Utopian policies of Muhainmad-bin-Tughlaq.

Muhammad Ghori returned to Ghori, leaving his Indian territories in the charge of his trusted general Qutub-ud –din Aibak. After Ghori’s death in 1206, Qutub-ud-din Aibak proclaimed himself as the ruler of the Turkish territories in India. He took the title of Sultan and made Delhi his capital. This marked the beginning of The Delhi … Read more

The Ghaznavid Invasion of India.

The Ghaznavid Dynasty was founded after the Turk slaves reached higher posts, such as commander-in-chiefs, in the Samanid court; they then took over the state of Khorasan. The real founder of the Ghaznavid Dynasty is, in fact, Sabuktigin. It was in his time that the Ghaznavid sovereignty expanded. Mahmud Ghazni was Son of Sabuktigin, the … Read more

The Arab Invasion of India

The first incursion by the new Muslim successor states of the Persian Empire occurred around 664 CE during the Umayyad Caliphate, led by Mohalib towards Multan in Southern Punjab, in modern day Pakistan. Mohalib’s expeditions were not aimed at conquest, though they penetrated only as far as the capital of the Maili, he returned with … Read more

04/07/2017- JPSC Daily Current Affairs

Jharkhand   Jharkhand opens GST call centre   A GST call centre has been opened in Jharkhand to help people with queries, while Chief Minister Raghubar Das reviewed the progress of the new tax system in the state, a day after it was rolled out.   The people would get information on registration, digital signature, … Read more

Theories of Evolution of Life on earth, including Human Evolution

THEORIES OF EVOLUTION Evolution, simply put, is descent with modification. This definition encompasses small-scale evolution (changes in gene frequency in a population from one generation to the next) and large-scale evolution (the descent of different species from a common ancestor over many generations). Evolution helps us to understand the history of life. Evolution is not … Read more

Soil fertility status of Jharkhand- Application of Vermi compost and Farm Yard Manure (FYM) for improving soil health. Nitrogen fixing bacteria; their applications and Concept of Organic farming

Soil Fertility status of Jharkhand According to GIS based data, Soil fertility can be mapped. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium are the major constituents, whichare considered important for soil fertility. Presence Lohardaga and Simdega districts have less presence of Nitrogen in the soil as compared to other districts. Palmau, Chatar, Kodarma, Giridh, Dumka, Godda, Sahibganj has … Read more

Functioning under a Coalition Government

Coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. Coalition governments are usually formed as no party can individually achieve a majority in the parliament. However, a coalition government may also be created in a time of national difficulty or crisis. If a coalition collapses, a confidence vote is held … Read more

Principles of Natural justice & Rule of Law

  Rule of Law may be defined as a principle of governance in which all persons, institutions and entities, public and private, including the State itself, are accountable to laws that are publicly promulgated, equally enforced and independently adjudicated, and which are consistent with international human rights norms and standards. It requires, as well, measures … Read more

Provisions relating to Administration of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribal Areas.

“The Scheduled Areas” are those tribal inhabited areas which are located in other parts of the country than the North-East India. These areas are located in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Orissa and Rajasthan. Besides these areas, some other regions of the country also are governed … Read more

Political Parties and Pressure Groups.

Political Parties and Elections Political parties are an established part of modern mass democracy, and the conduct of elections in India is largely dependent on the behaviour of political parties. Although many candidates for Indian elections are independent, the winning candidates for Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha elections usually stand as members of political parties, … Read more

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