Preamble of the Indian Constitution (Secular, Democratic and Socialist-Philosophy behind It)

The Constitution of India begins with a Preamble which describes the nature of the Indian State and the objectives it is committed to secure. K.M. Munshi describes the Preamble as the political horoscope of the constitution. Thakur Dass Bhargawa says Preamble is the most precious part and the soul of the constitution. The Preamble reads: … Read more

Literature and Writes Of Jharkhand

  Jharkhand is home to a number of languages belonging to three major language families. Indo-Aryan languages include Angika, Bhojpuri, Khortha, Nagpuri, Sadri, Hindi, Urdu, Oriya and Bengali. Jharkhand is also home to the Munda languages, Kurmali, Korku, Santhali, Mundari, Bhumij, Kharia and Ho, and the Dravidian languages Korwa, Oraon(Kurukh) and Paharia (Malto). Santhali , … Read more

Folk Music And Vocal Of Jharkhand

  The music of the Jharkhand is not purely entertaining. Some social and ritual significance is also attached to the music of the Jharkhand. The social commentary also provided by them sometimes. As a political tool and as a protested voice, this music is often used. The themes of the music were represented as the … Read more

Folk Dance Of Jharkhand

  Jharkhand dance forms are a medium of expressing one‘s feelings and the true nature of the vibrant culture of Jharkhand, some story or any other event. Most of these folk dances in Jharkhand are performed by the local tribes .The performance of folk dance in Jharkhand does not await the arrival of any particular … Read more

Cultural Art Of Jharkhand

  Folk Paintings or Paitkar or SCROLL PAINTING These are one of the oldest tribal paintings in India and due to their appearance they are also called scroll paintings. Artisans from the Paitkar community use natural colour and vermillion to paint on soiled or used papers. The hair of a goat or the help of … Read more

Cultural Status Of Jharkhand

  Oral tradition as a basis of customary practices The Adivasi customary practices evolve from the praxis of oral traditional. In other words, the culture defines the customary practices. It is reflected in what people give value to and what they value. The event is important rather than the time in which it took place. … Read more

Special Identity Of Jharkhand

  Jharkhand which came into being on 15 November 2000 as the 28th State of The Union is the homeland of the tribal‘s for which they had been dreaming for Centuries. According to legend. Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa had declared himself the ruler of Jharkhand in the 13th century. It largely comprises forest … Read more

Sadan Of Jharkhand

Sadani / Sadri is a lingua franca used for inter-tribal group communication in eastern-central India. The term “Sadani” can be used in two senses. In the first, more general meaning, “Sadani” refers to the closely related linguistic varieties in Jharkhand, including forms such as Panch Parganiya, Khortha and Kurmali, which are generally considered independent languages. … Read more

The Traditional Administrative System of Jharkhand

Adivasi/Indigenous peoples of Jharkhand (and in central India) traditionally have broadly three level of decision making process within the customary laws through a self-governing system, village level, cluster of village level and community level. Village Council: In Village level whole unit of village community are included whoever living in the village. This is the primary … Read more

An Introduction of Jharkhand History

  Jharkhand which came into being on 15 November 2000 as the 28th State of The Union is the homeland of the tribal‘s for which they had been dreaming for Centuries. According to legend. Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa had declared himself the ruler of Jharkhand in the 13th century. It largely comprises forest … Read more

Mazor policies of Jharkhand

  SHG Nurturing and Capacity Building Program: Since 2005, Diya Seva Sansthanis supported by District Rural Development Agency (DRDA), Ranchi to promote this feasible initiative. Under this activity so far, 500 SHGs were formed and strengthened at 51 villages of Kanke block in Ranchi district in Jharkhand. The women of these SHGs belong to the … Read more

Economy growth of Jharkhand & Others policies of Jharkhand

  Economy growth of Jharkhand has been slow in comparison with the national average. The economy depends mostly on mineral resources, industries, agricultural, and tourism sectors. The State’s Gross Domestic Product amounted to US $ 14 billion in 2004, which moved to US $ 22.46 billion in 2010-11. Jharkhand‘s per capita income increased by 40.82 … Read more

An overview of Education in Jharkhand

  Jharkhand is one of the most educationally backward states in India. With a total of 21,386 schools for 32,620 villages, on an average only 65 % of villages in Jharkhand have a school. In a typical Jharkhand villages, there are around 10-12 tolas(habitation) and the distance between the tolas is sometimes more than 5 … Read more

An overview of  Processing Sector of Jharkhand

        Food processing in the State is at a nascent stage. Various reports suggest that there are around 1500 food processing units operational in the State. An overwhelming majority of these units are micro and small units engaged in production of tomato sauce, juices and concentrates, jams and jellies, papad, pickles, grain … Read more

An overview of Allied Primary sector  Jharkhand

  Meat  Meat sector in the State predominantly operates mostly in an unorganized format. The state produced about 161.94 MT of meat during 2011-12. The per capita availability of meat is 7 gms/day whereas the total requirement of meat is 657 lakh ton leaving a deficit of 215.33 lakh ton (32.77%). In spite of large … Read more

  An overview of Jharkhand Horticulture

                     JHarkhand with its diverse agro-climatic conditions is much suited for the development of Horticulture based economy with ample scope of growth. The state of Jharkhand may be divided into six horticultural sub zones as far as the ecological specialties and suitability of different horticultural crops … Read more

  An overview of  Jharkhand Agriculture

                                 The State of Jharkhand was created in November’ 2000 after carving 79 lakh hectares geographical area from the State of Bihar for better planning and execution of development activities of a ecologically different zone ( Hills & Plateau region compared to Bihar plains). Agriculture is the main stay for the 80% of rural … Read more

An Overview of   Jharkhand Industries

  The new state of Jharkhand, widely acclaimed as the region of future, has enormous potentialities for industrialization. With its large deposits of minerals, it provides a solid launching pad for all kinds of industries. Born out of partition from old Bihar state in 2000, Jharkhand produces about 70% of the output of the old … Read more

An Overview of Jharkhand Economy

  Economy growth of Jharkhand has been slow in comparison with the national average. The economy depends mostly on mineral resources, industries, agricultural, and tourism sectors. The State’s Gross Domestic Product amounted to US $ 14 billion in 2004, which moved to US $ 22.46 billion in 2010-11. Jharkhand‘s per capita income increased by 40.82 … Read more

Concept and nature of sound.Wave length and frequency, infrasonic and Ultrasonic sounds, Sources of Infrasonic sound In nature, Ultrasonic sound characteristics and some applications.

Sound is a longitudinal wave, in which the particles oscillate to and fro in the same direction of wave propagation. Sound waves cannot be transmitted through vacuum. The transmission of sound requires at least a medium, which can be solid, liquid, or gas. Newton to derive a relation for the velocity of sound in a gaseous … Read more

System of Units: MKS, CGS and SI

Measurement of any physical quantity involves comparison with a certain basic, arbitrarily chosen, internationally accepted reference standard called unit. The result of a measurement of a physical quantity is expressed by a number (or numerical measure) accompanied by a unit. A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by … Read more

Interior of earth,

  Most of the knowledge we have about Earth’s deep interior comes from the fact that seismic waves penetrate the Earth and are recorded on the other side.  Earthquake ray paths and arrival times are more complex than illustrated in the animations, because velocity in the Earth does not simply increase with depth. Velocities generally … Read more

Origin and evolution of earth

    Beginning of the Universe started about 13.6 billion years ago,when the Big Bang created the universe from a point source. During this process, light elements, like H, He, Li, B, and Be formed. From this point in time, the universe began to expand and has been expanding ever since. Concentrations of gas and … Read more

Wildlife of India

  Wildlife means all the flora and fauna, which are not domesticated by humans. It includes animals, birds,plants,insects and microorganisms. With large regional variations in physiographic,climate,and edaphic types, indian forests offer a large variety of wild life in india.India bosts of more than 90,000species of animals which is about 6.5% of the world’s total species.Indian … Read more

Water Resources

  Rainfall: With an average annual rainfall of 1,170 mm, India is one of the wettest countries in the world. At one extreme are areas like Cherrapunji, in the northeast, which is drenched each year with 11,000 mm of rainfall, and at the other extreme are places like Jaisalmer, in the west, which receives barely … Read more

TYPE OF SETTLEMENT OF INDIA

Settlement can be defined as any form of human habitation which ranges from a single dwelling to large city. The word settlement has another connotation as well as this is a process of opening up and settling of a previously uninhabited area by the people. In geography this process is also known as occupancy. Settlements … Read more

TRENDS IN NUCLEAR POLICY, NPT AND CTBT

  Nuclear policy of india Important points of india’s nuclear policy are as follows: Building and maintaining a credible minimum deterrent. nuclear weapons will only be used in retaliation against a nuclear attack on Indian Territory or on Indian forces elsewhere. Nuclear retaliation to a first strike will be massive and designed to inflict unacceptable … Read more

The thrust of the Scientific Policy Resolution

The thrust of the Scientific Policy Resolution, 1958 was on capacity-building in advancement of science as the foundation for making a strong nation, which had just freed itself from the shackles of colonial domination . The focus of the Technology Policy Statement, 1983 was attainment of technological self-reliance and building of national strength by reducing … Read more

The Supreme Court

The Supreme Court is the highest court of The Indian Republic.  Judiciary, the third organ of the government, has an important role to play in the governance. It settles the disputes, interprets laws, protects fundamental rights and acts as guardian of the Constitution. India has a single unified and integrated judicial system and that the … Read more

Space Technology- Indian space programs.

  Application of Satellites for different purposes   Despite being a developing economy with its attendant problems, India has effectively developed space technology and has applied it successfully for its rapid development and today is offering a variety of space services globally. Indian Space Program: During the formative decade of 1960s, space research was conducted … Read more

Social Reforms Movements in Muslim Community: Wahabi Movement & Aligarh Movement

Social Reforms Movements in Muslim Community: Wahabi Movement & Aligarh Movement   The Muslims reformers in India launched many religious movements. Some tried to revive the religion and other tried to reform the religion. During the 19th century religion reforms movement were on the peak. Movements like Deoband Movement, Ahamadiya movement, Aligarh Movement;Wahabi Movement has … Read more

Role of Foreign Capital

  Role of Foreign Capital and Multinational companies in Industrial development of India   The development of any society or country without economic development is a myth. Economic development brings prosperity which in turns is directly proportional to the amount of goods and services produced quantitatively or in broad sense we can say in money … Read more

Rise of Maratha Empire

Rise of Maratha Empire Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was the founder of strong Maratha Empire in the west part of India in 17th Century. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was born in the fort of Shivneri, near from city Junner (Pune District), in the year 1630 (19th February’ 1630). His mother Jijabai … Read more

Rise of Maratha Empire

  Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was the founder of strong Maratha Empire in the west part of India in 17th Century. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was born in the fort of Shivneri, near from city Junner (Pune District), in the year 1630 (19th February’ 1630). His mother Jijabai Bhosale named him … Read more

Remote sensing- GIS and its application

    Remote Sensing Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation. In current usage, the term “remote sensing” generally refers to the use of satellite- or aircraft-based sensor technologies to detect and classify objects on Earth, … Read more

Regional imbalances and income inequalitiies in India: Steps taken by the Government to reduce it.

Regional imbalances and income inequalitiies in India: Steps taken by the Government to reduce it. Regional imbalance is the disparity in economic and social development of two regions. One region/city/area is stronger than another region/city/area. Regions develop when investments are made to set up industries, service sectors, educational institutions, health care facilities etc. Income inequality is the unequal distribution of … Read more

Origin of the Monsoon:

  Classcial Theories: Halley’s Thermal concept: Indian monsoon is because of contrast between Indian Subcontinent and adjoining Indian Ocean. Halley’s theory, suggested in 1686, considers the summer monsoon to be a regional phenomenon. Aerological concept: This was suggested by R. Scherhag in 1948. According to this theory, monsoon circulation develops due to changes in air … Read more

Nuclear Energy

  Introduction Global energy demand continues to climb as the industrialized world’s energy use rises, millions pull themselves out of poverty in developing countries, and the world population expands. Thus, the debate over the energy supply of the future intensifies. This debate is complicated by ongoing global climate destabilization as a result of green house … Read more

Non Alignment Movement

  One of the basic tenets of our foreign policy has been non-alignment. As an element of foreign policy non-alignment m e a n s i n d e p e n d e n t o f b l o c s , peaceful coexistence, global peace, disarmament, struggle against all manifestations of injustices … Read more

NATURAL RESOURCES OF INDIA

  What are natural resources ? Natural resources are useful raw materials that we get from the Earth. They occur naturally, which means that humans cannot make natural resources. Instead, we use and modify natural resources in ways that are beneficial to us. The materials used in human-made objects are natural resources. Some examples of natural … Read more

NATIONAL INCOME

National Income The study of National Income is important because of the following reasons: To see the economic development of the country. To assess the developmental objectives. To know the contribution of the various sectors to National Income. Internationally some countries are wealthy, some countries are not wealthy and some countries are in-between. Under such … Read more

Mughal Empire

Mughal Empire (1526 A.D.-1857 A.D.) Babur- His actual name was Zahiruddin Mohammed, son of Omar Sheikh Mirza, the king of Ferghana in Afghanistan. His ambition was to conquer Samarkand, the seat of Timur. In 1527 A.D., Babur defeated ranasanga in the battle of Kanwa. In the battle of Chanderi (1528 A.D.), Babur defeated Mediniroy. In … Read more

MARATHA EMPIRE

Rise of Maratha Empire Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was the founder of strong Maratha Empire in the west part of India in 17th Century. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was born in the fort of Shivneri, near from city Junner (Pune District), in the year 1630 (19th February’ 1630). His mother Jijabai … Read more

Liberation War of Bangladesh

  The Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971 was the culmination of a 25-year tumultuous relationship between East and West Pakistan. The British failed to keep a united India as riots started between the Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims in 1946. The riots were so widespread that on August 14, 1947 India was portioned into two … Read more

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