Agriculture and Rural Economy : Importance of agriculture in national economy; agricultural growth in India-production & productivity; causes of low productivity and measures taken by government to improve agricultural production

Indian Agriculture Mainstay of Indian Economy Since independence, undergone a change from being the sector contributing the highest share to the GDP to one contributing the lowest share. Agriculture is a state subject. GDP contribution (Agriculture and allied sector) 5 pc in 1950-51 7 pc in 2008-09 and 14.6 pc in 2009-10. It was 19 … Read more

Sustainable development : concept and indicators of sustainable development

Mahatma Gandhi’s principle of “enoughness” in his saying “the earth provides enough to satisfy every persons need but not for every person’s greed” According to World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future (1987) , Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to … Read more

Centre-State fiscal relationship,role of Finance Commission; Financial aspects of 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendments.

Under the Constitution the financial resources of the State are very limited though they have to do many works of social uplift under directive principles. In order to cope with their ever-expanding needs, the Central Government makes grants-in-aid to the States. Grant- in-aid to States , through it Central Government exercises a strict control over … Read more

Inflation : Concept control of inflation : monetary, fiscal and direct measures.

Inflation & Control Mechanism Inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. When the price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services.It is the percentage change in the value of the Wholesale Price Index (WPI) on a year-on … Read more

Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)

Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) seeks to measure relative female representation in economic and political power. It considers gender gaps in political representation, in professional and management positions in the economy, as well as gender gaps in incomes .GEM is a measure of inequalities between men’s and women’s opportunities in a country. It gives indicators to … Read more

Powers and functions of President

The Union executive consists of the President, the Prime minister and the Council of ministers. Powers and functions of The President of India The President is the head of the Indian State. He is the first citizen of India and acts as the symbol of unity, integrity and solidarity of the nation. Article 52 of … Read more

Fundamental Rights & Duties

The Indian constitution originally provided 7 categories of fundamental rights. But one fundamental right, that to property was removed from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment. Right to property now is an ordinary legal right. Thus there are now 6 categories of fundamental rights. These are:  (1) Right to equality (Arts. 14-18). In … Read more

Public interest Litigation

“Public interest Litigation”,is a litigation filed in a court of law, for the protection of “Public Interest” , such as pollution, Terrorism, Road safety, constructional hazards etc. Article 32 of the Indian Constitution contains the tool which directly joins the public with the judiciary. Public Interest Litigation is not mentioned in any constitution or a … Read more

Basic structure of the Indian Constitution

The basic structure doctrine is an Indian judicial principle that the Constitution of India has certain basic features that cannot be altered or destroyed through amendments by the parliament. Key among these “basic features”, are the fundamental rights granted to individuals by the constitution. The doctrine thus forms the basis of a limited power of the Indian … Read more

Salient features of the Indian Constitution.

Lengthiest written Constitution: Originally our constitution contained 395 articles divided in 22 parts and 8 schedules. Constitution has been amended 98 times. Currently there are 25 Parts, 12 Schedules, and 448 Articles. These figures show our constitution as the most comprehensive constitution in the world. (British have no written constitution and Constitution of USA had … Read more

Directive Principles Of State Policy

An important feature of the constitution is the Directive Principles of State Policy. Although the Directive Principles are asserted to be “fundamental in the governance of the country,” they are not legally enforceable. Instead, they are guidelines for creating a social order characterized by social, economic, and political justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity as enunciated … Read more

Preamble of the Indian Constitution (Secular, Democratic and Socialist-Philosophy behind It)

The Constitution of India begins with a Preamble which describes the nature of the Indian State and the objectives it is committed to secure. K.M. Munshi describes the Preamble as the political horoscope of the constitution. Thakur Dass Bhargawa says Preamble is the most precious part and the soul of the constitution. The Preamble reads: … Read more

Literature and Writes Of Jharkhand

  Jharkhand is home to a number of languages belonging to three major language families. Indo-Aryan languages include Angika, Bhojpuri, Khortha, Nagpuri, Sadri, Hindi, Urdu, Oriya and Bengali. Jharkhand is also home to the Munda languages, Kurmali, Korku, Santhali, Mundari, Bhumij, Kharia and Ho, and the Dravidian languages Korwa, Oraon(Kurukh) and Paharia (Malto). Santhali , … Read more

Tourist Attraction Of Jharkhand

  Usri Falls Amidst in the range of the famous Parasnath Hills ,the Usri River gushes down from a steep gorge , some 40 feet high in three separate streams .Located about 14 km away from east of Giridih Town .It is a favourite picnic spot. Palamu Tiger Reserve is very rich in biodiversity and … Read more

Folk Music And Vocal Of Jharkhand

  The music of the Jharkhand is not purely entertaining. Some social and ritual significance is also attached to the music of the Jharkhand. The social commentary also provided by them sometimes. As a political tool and as a protested voice, this music is often used. The themes of the music were represented as the … Read more

Folk Dance Of Jharkhand

  Jharkhand dance forms are a medium of expressing one‘s feelings and the true nature of the vibrant culture of Jharkhand, some story or any other event. Most of these folk dances in Jharkhand are performed by the local tribes .The performance of folk dance in Jharkhand does not await the arrival of any particular … Read more

Cultural Art Of Jharkhand

  Folk Paintings or Paitkar or SCROLL PAINTING These are one of the oldest tribal paintings in India and due to their appearance they are also called scroll paintings. Artisans from the Paitkar community use natural colour and vermillion to paint on soiled or used papers. The hair of a goat or the help of … Read more

Political Status & Political Identity Of Jharkhand

  Self governance was the basis of the social union among the Adivasis in Jharkhand. Kingship developed amongst the Adivasis as a result of the necessity to protect their natural and livelihood resources from alien predations and to pay taxes to more powerful emperors. The kings would appoint someone from amongst their kin to be … Read more

Cultural Status Of Jharkhand

  Oral tradition as a basis of customary practices The Adivasi customary practices evolve from the praxis of oral traditional. In other words, the culture defines the customary practices. It is reflected in what people give value to and what they value. The event is important rather than the time in which it took place. … Read more

Special Identity Of Jharkhand

  Jharkhand which came into being on 15 November 2000 as the 28th State of The Union is the homeland of the tribal‘s for which they had been dreaming for Centuries. According to legend. Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa had declared himself the ruler of Jharkhand in the 13th century. It largely comprises forest … Read more