QUICK REVISION: Art 4, Institutional structure for Nuclear energy:
ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION:
- Governing body of the department of Atomic energy
- It is directly under the charge of the Prime Minister
- Set up on 10Aug, 1948
- Organise research in atomic science
- To train atomic scientist in the country
- To promote nuclear research in commission’s own laboratory
- To undertake prospecting of atomic minerals in India
- Five centres:
- Bhabha Atomic research centre, MUMBAI
- Indira Gandhi centre for atomic research, Kalpakkam
- Raja Rammana Centre for advance technology, Indore
- Variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata
- Atomic minerals directorate for exploration and research, Hyderabad
ATOMIC ENERGY BOARD:
- to carry out certain regulatory and safety functions envisaged under atomic energy act, 1963
- It works in accordance to Atomic energy act, 1963 and envt. Protection act, 1986
- Board shall be responsible to the Atomic energy commission
- Develop safety guidelines, codes, policies in both radiation and industrial safety areas.
- Develop Series of procedure in commissioning and decommissioning of plants
- Final design analysis prepared by the project plant
- To ensure international standards in safety
NUCLEAR POWER CORPORATION OF INDIA LIMITED
- It is a public sector enterprise under the administrative control of the department of Atomic energy.
- It is responsible for design, construction, commissioning and operation of thermal nuclear plants
- It was create in 1987 under the companies act, 1956.
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay: Trombay near Mumbai. A series of ‘research’ reactors and critical facilities was built here.Reprocessing of used fuel was first undertaken at Trombay in 1964.BARC is also responsible for the transition to thorium-based systems. BARC is responsible for India’s uranium enrichment projects, the pilot Rare Materials Plant (RMP) at Ratnahalli near Mysore
• Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR): IGCAR at Kalpakkam was set up in 1971. Two civil research reactors here are preparing for stage two of the thorium cycle. BHAVINI is located here and draws upon the centre’s expertise and that of NPCIL in establishing the fast reactor program, including the Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility.
• The Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT): Multi-purpose research reactor (MPRR) for radioisotope production, testing nuclear fuel and reactor materials, and basic research.
• Atomic Minerals Directorate: The DAE’s Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) is focused on mineral exploration for uranium and thorium. It was set up in 1949, and is based in Hyderabad, with over 2700 staff.
• Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre: Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is a premier R & D unit of the Department of Atomic Energy. This Centre is dedicated to carry out frontier research and development in the fields of Accelerator Science & Technology, Nuclear Science (Theoretical and Experimental), Material Science, Computer Science & Technology and in other relevant areas.
• Global Centre for Nuclear Energy Partnership: It will be the DAE’s sixth R&D facility. It is being built near Bahadurgarh in Haryana state and designed to strengthen India’s collaboration internationally. It will house five schools to conduct research into advanced nuclear energy systems, nuclear security, radiological safety, as well as applications for radioisotopes and radiation technologies. Russia is to help set up four of the GCNEP schools.
The Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), established in the year 1971 is a major industrial unit of Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India. The complex is responsible for the supply of nuclear fuel bundles and reactor core components for all the nuclear power reactors operating in India. It is a unique facility where natural and enriched uranium fuel, zirconium alloy cladding and reactor core components are manufactured under one roof starting from the raw materials.
The Nuclear Command Authority (NCA) controls India’s nuclear arsenal. It consists of two components – The Executive Council and the Political Council. The NCA’s Executive Council, chaired by the National Security Adviser, gives inputs to the Political Council, which authorizes a nuclear attack if needed.
The Political Council is chaired by the Prime Minister and advised by the Executive Council. This mechanism is meant to ensure that the nuclear weapons are under civilian control. A Command and Control (C2) mechanism prevents their accidental or unauthorised use.