Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. The term may also be applied to any machine that exhibits traits associated with a human mind such as learning and problem-solving.
Artificial intelligence is based on the principle that human intelligence can be defined in a way that a machine can easily mimic it and execute tasks, from the most simple to those that are even more complex. The goals of artificial intelligence include learning, reasoning, and perception.
As technology advances, previous benchmarks that defined artificial intelligence become outdated. For example, machines that calculate basic functions or recognize text through optimal character recognition are no longer considered to embody artificial intelligence, since this function is now taken for granted as an inherent computer function.
Types of Artificial Intelligence
Type 1: Reactive Machines.
An example is Deep Blue, an IBM chess program that can identify pieces on the chess board and can make predictions accordingly. But the major fault with this is that it has no memory and cannot use past experiences to inform future ones. It also analyzes possible moves of its own and its opponents. Deep Blue and AlphaGO were designed for narrow purposes and cannot easily be applied to any other situation.
Type2: Limited Memory.
These AI systems can use past experiences to inform future decisions. Most of the decision-making functions in the autonomous vehicles have been designed in this way.
Type 3: Theory of mind
This is a psychology term, which refers to the understanding that the other have in their own beliefs and intentions that impact the decisions they make. At present this kind of artificial intelligence does not exist.
In this category, AI systems have a sense of self, have consciousness. Machines with self-awareness understand their current state and can use the information to infer what others are feeling. This type of AI does not yet exist.
Applications of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare
Companies are applying machine learning to make better and faster diagnoses than humans. One of the best-known technologies is IBM’s Watson. It understands natural language and can respond to questions asked of it. The system mines patient data and other available data sources to form a hypothesis, which it then presents with a confidence scoring schema.
Artificial Intelligence in business
Robotic process automation is being applied to highly repetitive tasks normally performed by humans. Machine learning algorithms are being integrated into analytics and CRM (Customer relationship management) platforms to uncover information on how to better serve customers. Chatbots have already been incorporated into websites and e companies to provide immediate service to customers. Automation of job positions has also become a talking point among academics and IT consultancies.
AI in Autonomous vehicles
Just like humans, self-driving cars need to have sensors to understand the world around them and a brain to collect, processes and choose specific actions based on information gathered. Autonomous vehicles are with advanced tool to gather information, including long range radar, cameras, and LIDAR. Each of the technologies are used in different capacities and each collects different information.
One of the main limitations of being human is simply our own bodies and brains. Researcher Shimon Whiteson thinksthat in the future, we will be able to augment ourselves with computers and enhance many of our own natural abilities. Though many of these possible cyborg enhancements would be added for convenience, others may serve a more practical purpose. Yoky Matsuka of Nest believes that AI will become useful for people with amputated limbs, as the brain will be able to communicate with a robotic limb to give the patient more control. This kind of cyborg technology would significantly reduce the limitations that amputees deal with daily.
Risks of Artificial intelligence
The AI is programmed to do something devastating
Autonomous weapons are artificial intelligence systems that are programmed to kill. In the hands of the wrong person, these weapons could easily cause mass casualties. Moreover, an AI arms race could inadvertently lead to an AI war that also results in mass casualties. To avoid being thwarted by the enemy, these weapons would be designed to be extremely difficult to simply “turn off,” so humans could plausibly lose control of such a situation. This risk is one that’s present even with narrow AI, but grows as levels of AI intelligence and autonomy increase.
The AI is programmed to do something beneficial, but it develops a destructive method for achieving its goal
This can happen whenever we fail to fully align the AI’s goals with ours, which is strikingly difficult. If you ask an obedient intelligent car to take you to the airport as fast as possible, it might get you there chased by helicopters and covered in vomit, doing not what you wanted but literally what you asked for. If a superintelligent system is tasked with a ambitious geoengineering project, it might wreak havoc with our ecosystem as a side effect, and view human attempts to stop it as a threat to be met.