Different Schools of Indian Philosophy

     Nastika Shools of Indian System of Philosophy 
Charvaka Believes only in materialism. No life beyond death, no soul no god.
Jaina  The names of two tirthankaras, Rishabhanath & Aristhanemia finds mention in Rig Veda.
540 BC Twenty third was Parsva, son of Ishvaku king Asvasena. Said to have flourished 300 yrs
    before Mahavira. Mahavira, the last Tirthankara  born in Kundagrama near Vaisali. His 
    father Siddhartha was the head of Jnatrika clan & mother Trisala was the sister of Chetaka, 
    a Lichchhavi noble. Chetaka’s dauthter was married to Bimbisara the king of Magadha. 
    Mahavira was married to Yasoda. Left home at 30 & attained Kaivalya at 42.  He accepted 
    4 doctrines of Parsava & added celibacy to it.  Chandragupta Maurya patronized it. Passed 
    away at Pawapuri. 
Buddha Gautama (known as Siddhartha as prince) was born in Lumbini near Kapilvastu to
566 B.C. Suddhodhana, the king of Sakya republic & Mayadevi who died seven days after his birth.
    Gautama was married to Yasodhara from whom he had a son Rahul. 6 years of meditation 
    led to enlightenment. First sermon in Sarnath known as ‘Set in motion the wheel of law’. 
    Eight fold paths. Buddhism denies efficacy of vedic rituals & superiority of brahmanas. 
    Followers were upasakas & bhikshus. Died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar. 
     Astika Schools of Indian System of Philosophy 
Vaisesika   Five elements – Earth, water, air, fire, Ether.  
Nyaya   Accepts all categories of Vaisesika & adds one Abhava (negation).  
Samkhya   Oldest of all. Twenty five basic principles first being ‘Prakriti’. Gives  
       doctrine of 3 qualities – virtue (sattva), passion (rajas) & dullness (tamas)  
Yoga     Salvation through: Yama (self control), Niyama, Asanas, Pranayama,  
       Pratyahara (restrain), Dharana (steady mind), Dhyana & Samadhi.  
Mimamsa   Recognises Vedas as final authority.  
Vedanta   Adi Sankara is protagonist. Ultimate reality ‘Brahma’ is one. Highest  
       level of truth is that the whole world that exists is Maya. Ramanuja  
       (founder of Sri Vaishnavism) differed from Sankara on his commentaries  
       on Upanishads & Gita. 

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