Administrative system of Jharkhand
People of Jharkhand have broadly three tier level of decision making process within the laws.
- Village council:-all the people residing in village are included into it. This is a primary traditional decision making process which is called village council or hatu dunub. Head of each village is called by unique name in all the tribes.
- Village cluster or parha: clusters are known by different names. Among Oraon five parha, twelve parha and among Munda- 12 mauja sanga parha etc
- Community level: in community level adivasi self governing system is known by different names like Oraon-Raji Parah andthe head is called Raji Parha etc
This system is based on Kinship. Nag dynasty evolved from the rudimentary state form through the interplay of both primary and secondary process of state formation. In culture matrix of the Mundas the elements of primary state were found. The classical theories as well as peaceful penetration are dispensed with as necessary condition for the rise of state among the mundas on the fact that they do not get support of history or ethro history of the people.
Pundra, Pundarika, naga or nagvanshis thus devotes to the tribal or clan to the groups that was cantered around the chota nagpur region which now is a part of Bengal, Bihar and Jharkhand. So Pani Mukut Rai the first Nagbanshi king of chotanagpur is the decendent of Pundarika Nag.Phani Mukut was then adopted by Madra Munda and he and his successor were called the Nagvanshis. Pani Mukut ruled from 83 AD to 162 AD.
During the british rule the subscription was permananet and was transformed into rent, through prior to this case of forced collection of the subscription by the king was set free from captive by the Mughals, who adopted this administrative system.
Mundas considered the village as a political unit. There was head and the organization was there to deal with the villagers. Pahan(the priest) was the head of the village. the Pahan began to exercise al the functions assigned thereto with the introduction of the Rajainto the Munda political system. The confederation of villages was made up to ten or twelve villages. It was called a Patti. The head of Patti was called the Manki. He was considered to be the political organizer of the Mundas.
His duties were to settle dispites of land, questions of tribal interest,to collect rent and hand over to the Raja etc
There were two types of heads in the village in an Oraon village, namely one is the secular head known as mahato who act on the social issues and the other is religious and sacred head known ad pahan. The heads were elected every three years. The inter village organization of the regional panchyat is known as Parha. The head of the pahara is called parha Raja. The number of village in different parha organization varies from region to region. In a Parha all the villages are subject to the authority of the Parha Panchayat.
The Parha Panchayat decides the matters of infringement of certain taboos that affect whole Parha ot he tribe. The disputes were settled regarding precedence at the Jatra festival and other matters which the village panchyat cannot decide or in which their decision is not accepted are bought before the Parha council.
Administrative system- Manjhi
The political administration unit of the Santals village are governed by council of elderly people of the village, who regulate the life of the people within the village and outside village. The political organizations are generally domestic in nature. The Santals have their own laws and their own methods of treating different kinds of offences. The offices of the political organization were generally passed patrilineally but now days the offices are not only hereditary but are conferred by selection of person.
The sandals have a well established political organization. It functions at the village, inter village and regional levels. The village is considered at the smallest and most important unit at the ground level.
Administrative System-Munda Manki
This system is normally has their tiers- first level organization in the lineagelevel-second level at the village level and the third level at the inter village. However is few areas inter village organization are weak in Ho area, Munda are the head men of the village and are subject to the authority of mankies, who are the head of inter village panchyats the post of munda is hereditary.
Administration System- Kharias
It is based on the law of equality- kharias strongly reflects the law of equality within tribes and between tribes. All the tribe members of the tribes have equal rights to thrive upon. Moral and ethical rules of kharia religion and kharia life are interdependent and have recognized certain moral rules. God is the only giver of punishment. Kharia believe thet there are two fundamental sins- greed and pride.
Administration System- Caste system
Amont the tribal communities the decision making process is more people cantered which has three sections namely karyapalika, vidhyayika and nyayapalika that exist from level of village to community level. Tribes considered that power should be distributed within the community that is why tribal village is called small republic.
Decision making process was based on their way of life which was closely related to land, river and forest. Adivasi were religiously and socially well integrated. The natural resources were closely connected with human being and spirit. Their self governing system was based on mutual concent and non hierarchical system.