Any – body of standing water, generally large enough in area and depth, irrespective of its hydrology, ecology, and other characteristics is generally known as lake.
Ageing of Lakes
The nutrient enrichment of the lakes promotes the growth of algae, aquatic plants and various fauna. This process is known as natural eutrophication.
Similar nutrient enrichment of lakes at an accelerated rate is caused by human activities and the consequent ageing phenomenon is known as ‘cultural eutrophication’.
In India, natural lakes (relatively few) mostly ile in the Himalayan region, the floodplains of Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra.
Lake ‘Sudarshan’ in Gujarat’s Girnar area was perhaps the oldest man-made lake in India, dating back to 300 BC.
Lakes are also classified on the basis of their water chemistry. Based-on the levels of salinity, they are known as Freshwater, Brackish or Saline lakes (similar to that of classification of aquatic ecosystem).
On the basis of their nutrient content, they are categorized as Oligotrophic (very low nutrients), Mesotrophic (moderate nutrients) and Eutrophic (highly nutrient rich).
Removal of the nutrients from a lake
- Flushing with nutrient-poor waters.
- Deep water abstraction.
- On-site P-elimination by flocculation/flotation with water backflow, or floating Plant
- NESSIE with adsorbents.
- On-site algae removal by filters and P-adsorbers.
- 0n-site algae skimming and separator thickening.
- Artificial mixing / Destratification (permanent or intermittent).
- Harvest of fishes and macrophytes.
- Sludge removal
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