Conservation of plants and animals outside their natural homes
Offsite Collections – 1500 botanical gardens and 800 zoological gardens – captive breeding program (species with less number of individuals – when number increases they are released in wild) – restock depleted population, reintroduce species in wild and restore degraded habitats
Gene Banks – stock of viable seeds, live growing plants, tissue culture and frozen germplasm
- Seed banks – orthodox seeds (tolerate reduction in moisture, low anaerobic conditions & low temperature for prolonged period) and recalcitrant seeds (killed on reduction of moisture or temperature like jackfruit, cocoa, tea and coconut)
- Orchards – Plants with recalcitrant seeds are grown in orchards where all possible strains are maintained – litchi, oil palm
- Tissue Culture – callus, embryoid, pollen grain culture, shoot tip culture for seedless plants, recalcitrant seeds, variable seed progeny or clones to be maintained – banana, potato.
- Cryopreservation – preservation at -196 ? (liquid nitrogen)