- Wastewater shares the policy and regulatory framework with water; however with some differences such as the role of bodies such as the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) becomes more critical.
- The CPCB, under the MoEF, is an advisory body to the government for prevention and control of water and air pollution and for improvement in air quality. At the state level, the state departments of environment and forests with the advice and assistance of the state pollution control boards (SPCBs) are responsible for enforcing the environmental acts and rules, and monitoring them.
- Meanwhile, many ad hoc expert appraisal committees (at the centre and state level) play a significant role in the grant of environmental clearances.
- Research is being conducted on applications of bio-technology on the treatment of industrial effluents – especially for paper and pulp industry, electroplating, distillery, tannery, dye and refineries – and biosensors for detection of pollutants, especially residues of pesticides and bio-diversity.
- Regulatory frameworks for on-site systems are virtually non-existent in India.
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