Coastal Regulation Zone

 Act of 1991

  • To regulate development activity on India’s coastline
  • The approach adopted by the first notification was to define the ‘High Tide Line’ and ‘Coastal Regulation Zone’ and thereafter specify the activities permitted and restricted in the vicinity of the CRZ
  • This regulated zone was further divided into four categories (CRZ 1-4) as per permitted land use
  • There have been about 25 amendments in this notification between 1991 and 2009
  • Rules re-issued in 2011
    • The difference between 1991 and 2011 rule is that the ‘no development zone’ has been reduced from 200 m from the high-tide line (HTL) to 100 m only to meet the increased demands of housing of fishing and other traditional coastal communities.
    • CRZ has been expanded to include territorial waters as protected zone
    • The concept of ‘hazard line’ has been introduced
    • Concept of classification of CRZ into four zones has been continued
  • CRZ I- ecologically sensitive areas such as mangroves, coral reefs, salt marshes, turtle nesting ground and the inter-tidal zone.
  • CRZ II- areas close to the shoreline, and which have been developed.
  • CRZ III- Coastal areas that are not substantially built up, including rural coastal areas.
  • CRZ IV- water area from LTL to the limit of territorial waters of India
    • A new category called areas requiring special consideration has been created which includes
      • CRZ areas of Greater Mumbai, Kerala and Goa
      • Critically vulnerable coastal areas such as Sunderbans
    • The list of exceptions to the rule prohibiting setting up of new industries and expansion of existing industries has been expanded


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