Women, Minorities, Backward classes, Differently-abled persons, and children in India
Women, minorities, backword classes, differentially abled people and children are the vulnerable section of the society.
- Women due to tradition and patriarchy (male sex considered to be superior to female in society)
- Disabled due to their physical and mental inability to perform activities like other human beings.
- Religious minorities due to their backwardness and marginalization compared to the majority religion. For Example Muslims in India are backward compared to other religions Linguistic Minorities due to their exclusion from the rest of society.
- Old age persons for their neglect from family and society.
- Diffrentially abled people because of their incompetency.
Welfare Schemes for Women
Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana (IGMSY): IGMSY is a conditional maternity benefit scheme for pregnant and lactating (one who has given birth to a child recently) mothers.
Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (RGSEAG): Sabla Sabla aims at all round development of adolescent girls of age 11 to 18 years.
Priyadarshini is for women empowerment in the mid-Gangetic plains implemented by NABARD. It aims at forming women self help groups.
Swadhar is for providing help to women in difficult circumstances. For Example, Widows destitutes etc.,
Short stay homes are launched for providing help accommodation to homeless women Ujjawala aims at prevention of trafficking in women.
Rashtriya Mahila Kosh is for providing loans to poor women for launching small business.
Welfare Schemes for Religious and Linguistic Minorities
National Commission for Religious and Linguistic Minorities
National Commission for Religious and Linguistic Minorities has the following objectives:
- To identify socially and economically backward sections among religious and linguistic minorities and.
- To suggest welfare measures for them.
Scheme was launched for providing formal education and skill training to youth who are studying in religious minority schools. The program aims at improving their employability in organized sector and to lead better lives. For Example, Madrasas of Muslims majorly impart religious education.
Welfare Schemes for Disabled
Disability refers to physical and mental incapabilities of people. It arises either because of birth defects or post birth circumstances like accidents, diseases and harm to mental health etc. The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill, 2014 (it replaced the earlier 1995 bill) covers the various rights of disabled. Some of its focus areas are:
- Providing reservation for disabled in employment and education
- Providing rights and entitlements to disabled persons. For Example, disabled friendly access to all public buildings, hospitals etc.
- It provides guardianship to mentally ill persons
- It has penal provisions for violation.
Welfare Schemes for Older Persons
National Policy for Older Persons
National Policy for older persons has the following objectives:
- To encourage individuals to make provisions for their own and their spouses old age
- To encourage families to take care of their older family members To bring non governmental organizations for caring older persons
- To provide healthcare facility to the elderly To create awareness regarding elderly persons and
- to develop them into fully independent citizens
Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS): IGNOAPS aims to provide old age pension for persons above the age of 60 years. A pension of Rs 200 per month for beneficiaries aged 60 to 79 and Rs 500 per month for beneficiaries aged 80 years and above is provided under this scheme.
Senior citizens who are eligible under IGNOPAS but not covered by it will receive 10 kg of free rice every month.
Child Protection and Welfare
Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS): It was launched in 1975 with the following objectives: to improve the nutritional and health status of children in the age-group 0-6 years; to lay the foundation for proper psychological, physical and social development of the child; to reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school dropout. It provides supplementary nutrition, immunization, regular health check-up, pre-school non-formal education and nutrition & health education.
Elimination of Child Labour: It is being implemented by the Ministry of Labour which sanctions projects for rehabilitation of working children and for elimination of child labour. Recently the Union Cabinet has approved a proposal for amending the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, to ban employment of children aged up to 14 in any form of industry. It will be an offence to employ such children not only in factories or industries but also in homes or on farms, if their labour is meant to serve any commercial interest.