Role of external state and Non-state actor's in creating challenges to internal security
Challenges to Internal security through communication networks
Role of media and Social networking sites in internal securityChallenges
Basics of cyber security
Role of biometric devices in security
IT Act (2000)
Security challenges in border areas linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
Management in border areas by various security forces/agencies.
Role of external state and Non-state actor's in creating challenges to internal security
State actors are nations/countries which are also known as “states”. They have sovereignty over their own territory and that sovereignty is recognized on the international stage by international organizations such as the United Nations.
Non-state actors are organized groups that do not hold any officially recognized territory, though they may control some territory through force of arms. The best example of this today is ISIS who are an armed terrorist group that until recently controlled large swaths of Syria and Iraq.
- The External State Connections
Northeastern India is inhabited by Mongoloid tribes who have close ethnic and cultural ties with the tribes in China, Tibet and Burma. Barring Khasis and Jaintias of Meghalaya, almost all hill tribes belong to the Tibeto-Chinese fold and to the Tibeto-Burmese family.
East Pakistan, Bangladesh since 1971, was host to many insurgent activities unleashed against India in the northeastern region.
The anti-India operations have been largely possible because of the presence of an overwhelming illegal immigrant Bangladeshi population in the northeast. The porosity of the Indo-Bangladesh border has led to many unanticipated problems for India.
India shares a 1670 km long land border and a maritime border of 200 km with Myanmar.
Some Burmese tribals belonging to the Kuki Chin Group are fighting for merger of lands inhabited by them with India.
Countries that are unfriendly towards India find an opportunity in the ongoing turmoil in the northeast and their involvement has made the problems that much more difficult to resolve.
- Non State actors
Act of Terrorism, insurgency or extremism by any individual or a groups which has no direct or indirect linkages with any government or any government organization, is said to be done by non-state actors.
The emergence of non-state terrorist actors and the rise of their international influence is accelerating. Much of their activity is clandestine and outside the accepted international norms. International and state-sponsored terrorism, often motivated by fundamentalist ideologies, backed by secretive but efficient financial networks, use of IT, clandestine access to chemical-biological and nuclear materials, and illicit drug trafficking, has emerged as a major threat to international stability.
They pose threats to multireligious, multiethnic and pluralistic societies. India is at the receiving end of these violent elements and is likely to remain a target of international terrorism in the future. Strategies need to be evolved to counter the threat of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) terrorism as well as cyber-terrorism.
Challenges to Internal security through communication networks
- Communication networks are a part of our critical information infrastructure. Communication networks refer to an interconnection of communicating entities such as computers, laptops, mobiles, telephones etc. via which provides the basis for information exchange for all other sectors including voice, data, video, and Internet connectivity.
- Communication network should not be confused with the computer networks such as LAN, WAN etc. because they are merely one form of the Communication networks. Various communication networks are the backbone of much of the critical infrastructure in many sectors today such as civil aviation, shipping, railways, power, nuclear, oil and gas, finance, banking, IT, law enforcement, intelligence agencies, space, defence, and government networks. As such, communications systems serve part in parcel with other key internal and external security and emergency preparedness. Moreover, the communication networks are very much dependent on each other in a very complex way. The collapse of one communication network can affect adversely many sectors.
- There numerous network threats that can have adverse impact on communication network:
Network Packet Sniffers
When large information is sent via a network, it is broken into smaller pieces, which are called network packets. Generally these network packets are sent as clear text over the networks i.e. information sent across the network is not encrypted.
Social Engineering Attacks
Social engineering refers to psychological tricks used to persuade people to undermine their own online security. This can include opening an email attachment, clicking a button, following a link, or filling in a form with sensitive personal information.
When an attacker situated outside the targeted network pretends to be a trusted computer then the mode of attack is termed as IP spoofing. IP spoofing can be done either by using an IP address of targeted network pool or by using an authorized & trusted external IP address.
Phishing refers to a technique used to gain personal information for the purpose of identity theft, using fraudulent e-mail messages that appear to come from legitimate organizations such as banks.
Denial of Service
Most popular form of attack, denial of service (DoS) attacks are also among the most difficult to completely eliminate. Among the hacker community, DoS attacks are regarded as trivial and considered bad form because they require so little effort to execute.
When this type of attack is launched from many different systems at the same time, it is often referred to as a distributed denial of service attack (DDoS). DDoS is not actually hacking the website but is a common technique used to temporarily bring down websites.
Password attacks usually refer to repeated attempts to identify a user account and/or password; these repeated attempts are called brute-force attacks. If this account has sufficient privileges, the attacker can create a back door for future access.
Password attacks can easily be eliminated by not relying on plaintext passwords in the first place. Using OTP or cryptographic authentication can virtually eliminate the threat of password attacks.
Distribution of Sensitive Information
Most of the computer break-ins that organizations suffer are at the hands of troublesome present or former employees.
Man-in-the-middle attacks refer to access to network packets that come across the networks. An ISP can gain access to all network packets transferred between one network and any other network. It can launch such an attack.
Application Layer Attacks
Application layer attacks are performed by identifying the well-known weaknesses in software that are commonly found on servers, such as sendmail, Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and FTP etc.
Virus and Trojan Horse Applications
Viruses and Trojan horse applications are the primary vulnerabilities for end-user computers. Viruses refer to malicious software that is attached to another program to execute a particular unwanted function on a user’s workstation.
Scareware is fake/rogue security software. There are millions of different versions of malware, with hundreds more being created and used every day.
As spam expands into other areas online, traditional email spam still remains a significant problem, especially in business. Workers still need to keep their inboxes clear of junk, and advanced mail filtering systems are a necessity in any business hoping to use email efficiently.
Ransomware is a class of malware which restricts access to the computer system that it infects, and demands a ransom paid to the creator of the malware in order for the restriction to be removed.
Role of media and Social networking sites in internal security Challenges.
- Social Media can be defined as any web or mobile based platform that enables an individual or agency to communicate interactively and enables exchange of user generated content and it is explained by a number of tools, which includes blogs, Wikis, discussion forums, micro-blogs, twitter and social networking sites. Internet has become a platform for coordination of plans of attack, communication with cells, or propaganda and information and spread of hate campaign or messages that can hurt the sentiments of people.
- Social Media in recent times has become synonymous with Social Networking sites such as Facebook or Micro Blogging sites such as Twitter.
- The advantages of Social media are so many but they are posing threat to in various forms like Cyber Terrorism, Fraud, crime, spreading violence, etc.
- According to the Cisco 2013 Annual Security Report, the highest concentration of online security threats are on mass audience sites, including social media.
- The rapid spread of false information through social media is among the emerging risks identified by the World Economic Forum in its Global Risks 2013 Report.
- National Security is of prime importance for any nation to maintain peace and harmony. Nations face numerous internal security challenges and Social Media act as the platform for that. Social media is not security threat in itself but the users of these services can pose the threats by their anti-social endeavours.
- With limited government oversight, industry standards or incentives to educate users on security, privacy and identity protection, users are exposed to identity theft and fraud. Additionally, these platforms have huge confidential user information, and are likely vulnerable to outside or inside attack which is detrimental to .
Different threats due to Social Media are:
- Cyber Terrorism:
The biggest challenge for internal security of nation through social networking site is cyber terrorism.
Today terrorists select Social Media as a practical alternative to disturb the function of nations and other business activities because this technique has potential to cause huge damage. It poses enormous threat in international system and attracts the mass media, the security community, and the information technology corporation.
At the same time, due to the convenience, affordability and broad reach of social media platforms like YouTube, Facebook and Twitter, terrorist groups have increasingly used social media to further their goals and spread their message.
Social Media became a platform for coordination of plans of attack, communication with cells, or propaganda and information and spread of hate campaign or messages that can hurt the sentiments of people.
These groups now have their own websites where they can convey their propaganda and, for most of them, they advise their readers and followers not to trust the media which are seen as the enemy.
The chat service like Skype, which includes voice and video capabilities, has become particularly popular with terrorist cells. Chat rooms and electronic forums enable the insurgent and extremists groups to communicate with members and supporters all over the world, to recruit new followers and to share information at little risk of identification by authorities.
Youths are especially targeted for propaganda, incitement and recruitment purposes by terrorist groups.
Social networking sites also invite fraudsters to take excellent opportunity to become wealthy by applying deceiver schemes.
- Criminal Activity and Money laundering:
Internet Media is a major resource for developing serious crime. As Internet is growing explosively, online criminals try to present fraudulent plans in many ways. Social networking sites also pose major challenge in financial and organized crime which destabilizes the system. It creates threat to a company's security because of what employees might disclose and they are on prime target for cyber criminals.
- International users:
The other national and international users such as the political parties, NGO's, hackers pose a serious threat using the social media. For example, during the civil turmoil in the Arab Spring Uprising, the various governments were threatened through the social media.
- To Bring Revolution:
Some countries in the world feel threatened by the fact that social media can bring the people together and thus, create a revolution. This in turn can cause political instability
- Communal Violence and Fanning Tensions:
Importantly, social media also seems to be playing a significant role in polarising different communities in India and compounding India's Security challenges. The viral videos and false updates of communal clashes, riots and terrorists attack have created a massive impact in the life of public.
The power of media and the process of public opinion formation in a free society had undergone radical change due to Internet and faster means of communications like SMS, whats app, viber and simplified mobile internet. The chain of events beginning with the clashes in our North-east and which caused very serious and mass exodus of North-east population from several Indian cities has revealed the fragility of our national Cohesion.
- Virtual Community:
Popular social networking websites are another means of attracting potential members and followers. These types of virtual communities are growing increasingly popular all over the world, especially among younger demographics. This can build Anti-national Sentiments among Society.
Hackers write or use ready-made computer programs to attack the target computer. By using Social Media hackers breach the national security and steal important data of defence or other strategic sectors. This can kneel the whole country without using Arms and Ammunition.
Although social media has the potential to be a threat to national security, it also has the opportunity to strengthen National Security and to be used to benefit the Government.
One of the fastest growing ways that Governments are using social media is as a warning or trend prevention tool. As a monitoring tool, the government is able to recognize the first signs of any hostile or potentially dangerous activity by collecting and analyzing messages in order to try to predict events that could be a danger to National Security.
Another important use of social media by the government is as an institutional Communication Tool. Social Media provides a medium that creates cohesion between federal agencies by increasing both communication and transparency.
Basics of cyber security
- Cyber security is a process, technique or procedure to ensure information security goals.
Aim of Information Security is to provide CIA i.e.
- Confidentiality of information
- Integrity of information
- Availability of information
These 3 parameters (CIA) are called security goals/security services.
The other security objectives also include such other parameters as authenticity, authorisation, accounting and non-repudiation.
- Cyber Security is the security of information and its communicating channels as applied to computing devices such as computers and smartphones, as well as computer networks such as private and public networks, including the Internet as a whole. The field covers all the processes and mechanisms by which computer-based equipment, information and services are protected from unintended or unauthorized access, change or destruction. Computer security also includes protection from unplanned events and natural disasters. Cyber security is a complex issue that cuts across multiple domains and calls for multi-dimensional, multilayered initiatives and responses.
- The act of protecting ICT systems and their contents has come to be known as cyber security. A broad and debatable concept, cyber security can be a constructive term. It generally refers to a set of activities and other measures intended to protect from attack, disruption, or other threats to computers, computer networks, related hardware and devices software, and the information they hold and communicate, including software and data, as well as other elements of cyberspace.
- Cyber security is also associated with the technical term, information security, which is explained in federal law as protecting information and information systems from illegal access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or damage in order to provide integrity, confidentiality and availability.
- Integrity denotes to guarding against improper information modification or destruction, and includes ensuring information non repudiation and authenticity.
- Confidentiality signifies preserving authorized restrictions on access and disclosure, including ways of protecting personal privacy and proprietary information.
- Availability indicates ensuring timely and reliable access to and use of information. Cyber security concentrates on protecting computers, networks, programs and data from unintended or unauthorized access, change or destruction. Governments, military, corporations, financial institutions, hospitals and other businesses gather process and store huge confidential information on computers and pass on that data across networks to other computers. With the growing volume and complexity of cyber attacks, more attention is necessary to protect sensitive business and personal information, as well as protect national security.
Role of biometric devices in security
- Biometric devices measure biological elements (like human features) in order to perform functions, such as logging health/fitness data and authenticating users. There are many different uses for the technology and a variety of methods for its implementation. Types of biometric data include visual, audio, spatial and behavioral.
According to these characteristics, the sub-divided groups are:
- Chemical biometric devices: Analyses the segments of the DNA to grant access to the users.
- Visual biometric devices: Analyses the visual features of the humans to grant access which includes IRIS recognition, Face recognition, Finger recognition and Retina Recognition.
- Behavioural biometric devices: Analyses the Walking Ability and Signatures (velocity of sign, width of sign, pressure of sign) distinct to every human.
- Olfactory biometric devices: Analyses the odour to distinguish between varied users.
- Auditory biometric devices: Analyses the voice to determine the identity of a speaker for accessing control.
Roles and uses of Biometric devices
IRIS and Fingerprint recognition at New delhi Terminal 4
Biometrics are being used to establish better and accessible records of the hours employee's work.
As the demand for air travel grows and more people travel, modern day airports have to implement technology in such a way that there are no long queues.
Handheld and personal devices
Thumbprint recognition become accessible to millions with the iPhone 5S. The fingerprint sensor, also called Touch ID is used to unlock the phone, authorise payments and buy app store applications.
- Passwords can be forgotten and recovering them can take time, whereas Biometric devices rely on biometric data which tends to be unique to a person, hence there is no risk of forgetting the authentication data.
IT Act (2000)
- The Government of India enacted the Information Technology (I.T.) Act with some major objectives to deliver and facilitate lawful electronic, digital, and online transactions, and mitigate cyber-crimes.
- The original Act contained 94 sections, divided in 13 chapters and 4 schedules. The laws apply to the whole of India. Persons of other nationalities can also be indicted under the law, if the crime involves a computer or network located in India.
Salient Features of I.T Act
The salient features of the I.T Act are as follows −
- Digital signature has been replaced with electronic signature to make it a more technology neutral act.
- The formations of Controller of Certifying Authorities was directed by the Act, to regulate issuing of digital signatures
- It elaborates on offenses, penalties, and breaches.
- It outlines the Justice Dispensation Systems for cyber-crimes.
- It defines in a new section that cyber café is any facility from where the access to the internet is offered by any person in the ordinary course of business to the members of the public.
- The Act also amended various sections of Indian Penal Code, 1860, Indian Evidence Act, 1872, Banker's Book Evidence Act, 1891, and Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 to make them compliant with new technologies.
Highlights of the Amended Act
The newly amended act came with following highlights −
- It stresses on privacy issues and highlights information security.
- It elaborates Digital Signature.
- It clarifies rational security practices for corporate.
- It focuses on the role of Intermediaries.
- New faces of Cyber Crime were added.
Section 66A – Section 66A prescribes the punishment for sending "offensive' messages through computers or any other communication device such as a mobile phone or a tablet, and a conviction can fetch a maximum of three years in jail.
Security challenges in border areas linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
Organized crime is described as any group having a corporate structure whose main aim is to obtain money through unlawful activities often surviving on fear and corruption. Today, organized crime is business at large scale that is conducting global commerce for the trafficking of illegal services and products as well as developing the associated supply chains. Criminal organizations are conducting commerce across traditional nation-state boundaries that permit illegal groups to work in synchronisation with other like groups.
These crimes include: Bribery, Murder, Counterfeiting, Embezzlement of Union Funds, Mail Fraud, Wire Fraud, Money Laundering, Obstruction of Justice, Murder for Hire Drug Trafficking, Prostitution Sexual Exploitation of Children, Alien Smuggling, Trafficking in Counterfeit Goods, Kidnapping Gambling, Arson Robbery, Sports Bribery Extortion, Drugs, and Theft from Interstate Shipment/Interstate.
Narcotic trafficking and Terrorism
Started as an organised crime has emerged as a threat to nation states because of its association with terrorist groups. Narcotic drugs are most profitable commodity that it generates quick money only hard cash.
- India’s worries get magnified because India has a location between golden crescent and golden triangle which are world’s major narcotics producing and exporting regions. This unique location leads India to become a popular route for drug trafficking which can lead to rise of Narco-terrorism and finally instability in the country.
Drug Trafficking and Terrorism
- Terrorists indulge in drug trafficking directly to support their own cause.
- Sympathizers involve in drug trafficking and send the illegal profits to fund the terrorist movements.
- Terrorists and drug lords join to gain access to the powers to utilise their connections with political powers.
Arm Trafficking and Terrorism
The illegal arms trafficking aids terrorists and terrorist groups operating around the world and it is central to the global war on terror. These arms are not only the weapons of choice in the majority of today’s regional conflicts but also for many terrorists and terrorist groups operating around the world.
Terrorists give protection and support to drug traffickers with fire arms, and the drug traffickers, being acquainted with the routes, assist the terrorists in border crossings to bring arms and drugs in the target country.
Human Trafficking and Terrorism
Terrorism is an expensive business, and better technology has made it easier to track money online, and Terrorist organizations not only utilize human trafficking for financial support, they also use to obtain an entry point into countries.
India is found to be both the country of origin and destination for trafficking in women. Human trafficking is not only one of the first financial steps into the transnational and trans-criminal financial network but that it is the bedrock of these criminal syndicates.
Management in border areas by various security forces/agencies
To deal with security, India has different forces that are specialized to deal with different security threat. Conventionally, forces were meant to be only Defence forces but with rising internal challenges and other threats related to border management, disaster management etc, various forces have come to the for. These forces and agencies in India at broad framework are
Security Forces and Agencies
- Armed Forces
- Paramilitary Forces
- Central Armed Police Forces
- Central Intelligence and Investigation
- Central Forensic Institute
- Other Institute
- State Armed Police Forces
They provide security against external threats and conventional warfare ie
To assert the territorial integrity of India.
- To defend the country if attacked by a foreign nation.
- To support the civil community in case of disasters (e.g. flooding).
- To participate in United Nations peacekeeping operations in consonance with India’s commitment to the United Nations Charter.
There are three Armed forces:
- Indian Army: The army's main objective was to defend the nation's frontiers. However, over the years, it has also taken up the responsibility of providing internal security, especially in insurgent-hit Kashmir and north-east.
- Indian Navy: The role of navy is to ensure that no hostile maritime power can degrade own national security and interests.
- Indian Air force: Mission of Air force is “Defence of India and every part thereof including preparation for defense and all such acts as may be conducive in times of war to its prosecution and after its termination to effective demobilisation. Its Primary objective being safeguarding the Indian territory in conjunction with other armed forces by defending Indian Air Space.
They assist Armed forces very closely and led by officers of Indian Armed forces. Previously term ‘Paramilitary forces’ was used to refer to variety of armed services that aid the operation of law enforcement agencies of India and Armed forces but in 2011 on request of army a new definition was adopted which excluded Central Armed Police forces. There are currently three Paramilitary forces:
- It guards Indo-Myanmar Border.
- Also engaged in internal security of North East states.
- Conduct counter insurgency operations in the north-east and other areas where deemed necessary, under control of the army.
- Act as penultimate interventionist force of the central government in internal security situation, under the control of army; when the situation goes beyond the control of central paramilitary operations
- Engaged in Counter terrorism
- Also provide close protection to VIPs along with SPG.
- Indian Coastal Guard: Emergence of the Coast Guard in India on 01 Feb., 1977 as a new service was the result of an awareness that had been growing for some time in the Government for the requirement to enforce National Laws in the waters under national jurisdiction and ensure safety of life and property at sea.
The Coast Guard in its present shape was formally inaugurated on 18 Aug 1978 as an independent armed force of the union with the enactment of the Coast Guard Act 1978 by the Parliament with its motto as `VAYAM RAKSHAMAH; which means `WE PROTECT'.
CENTRAL ARMED POLICE FORCES:
On the recommendation of Border Management Task Force which was constituted after Kargil war, provision was made for One Border One force and accordingly various forces were created. All these CAPF agencies function under the aegis of Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) of the Government of India.
1. Central Industrial Security Force (CISF):
- The CISF came into existence in 1969 with a modest beginning, having three battalions, to provide integrated security cover to the Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs).
CISF is currently providing security cover to nuclear installations, space establishments, airports, seaports, power plants, sensitive Government buildings and even heritage monuments.
2. Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB):
SSB was set up in early 1963 in the wake of the Indo-China conflict to inculcate feelings of national belonging in the border population and develop their capabilities for resistance through a continuous process of motivation, training, development, welfare programmes and activities in the then NEFA, North Assam, North Bengal, hills of Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, and Ladakh. The scheme was later extended to Manipur, Tripura, Jammu (1965), Meghalaya (1975), Sikkim (1976) border areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat (1989), Manipur, Mizoram and some more areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat (1988), South Bengal, Nagaland (1989) and Nubra Valley, Rajouri and Poonch district of Jammu and Kashmir (1991).
3.Border Security Force (BSF):
Established on 1st December, 1965, it is one of the Central Armed Police Forces. Its primary role is to guard India's international borders during peacetime and also prevent trans-border crime. Like all Central Armed Police Forces of India, the BSF is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Home Affairs. It is one of the many law enforcement agencies of India.
4.Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF):
The Central Reserve Police Force came into existence as Crown Representative’s Police on 27th July, 1939. It became the Central Reserve Police Force on enactment of the CRPF Act on 28th December, 1949.
It is a reserve force to assist state police in law and order.
5.Indo Tibetan Border Police Force (ITBPF) :
ITBPF was raised on 24 Oct,1962.Presently, ITBP is deployed on border, guarding duties from Karakoram Pass in Ladakh so Jachep La in Arunachal Pradesh covering 3488 km of Indo-China Border and manning Border Outposts on altitudes ranging from 9000’ to 18700’ in the Western, Middle and Eastern Sector of the Indo-China Border.
ITBPF is a Specialized Mountain Force and most of the officers & men are professionally trained mountaineers and skiers. Being the first responder for natural disaster in the Himalayas, ITBPF has been carrying out numerous rescue and relief operations.
6.National Security Guard (NSG):
- The National Security Guard (NSG) was set up in 1984 as a Federal Contingency Deployment Force to tackle all facets of terrorism in the country.
- The NSG was modeled on the pattern of the SAS of the UK and GSG-9 of Germany. It is a task-oriented Force and has two complementary elements in the form of the Special Action Group (SAG) comprising Army personnel and the Special Ranger Group (SRG), comprising personnel drawn from the Central Para Military Forces / State Police Force.
7.Railway Protection Force(RPF):
- To protect Railway property.
- To do all conducive means for the free movement of the railways.
- Protection and safeguarding the passengers.
8.Special Protection Group (SPG):
It provides security cover to Prime minister, VVIPS and their immediate family members.
9.National Disaster Response Force (NDRF):
The National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is a disaster response agency under National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) created by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. It was established in 2009 in Delhi, for disaster management and specialised response to natural and man-made disaster.
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AND INVESTIGATIVE AGENCIES :
- Gather Intelligence from within India
- Execute counter Intelligence and counter terrorism operations
b) National Investigative Agencies (NIA) :
It is a federal agency established to combat terror in India. It acts as the Central Counter Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency. The agency is empowered to deal with terror related crimes across states without special permission from the states. NIA was created after the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks as the need for a central agency to combat terrorism was realised.
c) Research and Analysis Wing (RAW):
Formed in September, 1968. Its creation was necessitated post Sino-Indian War of 1962 and Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 which showed various gaps in intelligence gathering undertaken by Intelligence Bureau (which then handled both internal and external intelligence)
d) National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB):
- To prepare an enabling IT environment – policy framework, guidelines, architecture, best practices for Police Forces throughout the country
- To improve knowledge based pro-active policing with the use of IT for improving internal efficiency, effectiveness and public service delivery
- To provide training in IT and Finger Print Science for capacity building in Police Forces
e) Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB):
- To fight from Drug Trafficking on Pan India Level.
f) Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI):
- Collection of intelligence about smuggling of contraband goods, narcotics, under-invoicing etc. through sources of India and abroad, including secret sources.
- Analysis and dissemination of such intelligence to the field formations for action and working on such intelligence, where necessary.
g) Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI):
The CBI was established in 1941 as the Special Police Establishment, tasked with domestic security. It was renamed the Central Bureau of Investigation on 1st April, 1963. Its motto is "Industry, Impartiality, Integrity". The CBI is under the control of Department of Personnel and Training of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions. While analogous in structure to the FBI, the CBI's powers and functions are limited to specific crimes by Acts (primarily the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946).
h)Central Forensic Institutes:
- Central Forensic Science Laboratory (CFSL)
- Directorate of Forensic Science
- Central Finger Print Bureau
- National Intelligence Grid:
It is an integrated intelligence grid which will link databases of several departments and ministries of Government of India as to gather comprehensive pattern of intelligence i.e 360 degree intelligence. First proposed in the aftermath of Mumbai Terrorist attack. NATGRID is a crucial initiative that will help plug our vulnerabilities by upgrading and enhancing our capability to detect and respond to such threats at the earliest possible time.
- Multi Agency Centre:
MAC is a multi-agency centre for Counter Terrorism whose mandate is to share terrorism related inputs on a day-to-day basis.