Protein Synthesis


Proteins are the end product of many metabolic processes. A typical cell requires thousands of different protein molecules at any given moment. So, the protein requirements of a particular cell has to be satisfied by synthesizing them at site or has to be transferred from where it is being synthesized.

This is in accordance with the central dogma of molecular genetics, which postulates that the genetic information flows from nucleic acid to proteins.  In Eucaryotic cells, protein synthesis requires the participation of over 70 ribosomal proteins; 20 or more enzymes to activate amino acid precursors, etc. And about 100 additional enzymes for the final processing of different kinds of proteins and 40 or more types of transfer and ribosomal RNAs.   In total, 300 different macromolecules are required to synthesize polypeptides or proteins.Many of these macromolecules are organized into the complex 3D structure of the ribosomes to carry out stepwise trans location of the mRNA as the polypeptide is assembled.

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