Jharkhand is one of the most educationally backward states in India. With a total of 21,386 schools for 32,620 villages, on an average only 65 % of villages in Jharkhand have a school. In a typical Jharkhand villages, there are around 10-12 tolas(habitation) and the distance between the tolas is sometimes more than 5 km. This indicates the difficulty in access faced by children Jharkhand.
Number of literates to total population
Females 4, 29, 21
Percentage of literates to total population
Jharkhand has three good universities and 131 colleges under it that offer various facilities in the field of education. Besides, there are a number of good technical institutions that provided better facility in the faculty like law, medical, engineering, technology, management etc.
Ranchi university, Ranchi
Siddhlu kanhu university, Dumka
Binova bhave university, Hazaribagh
Birsa Agricultural university, Ranchi
I.T Mesra Deemed university, Ranchi
Rajendra law Colleges, Hazaribagh
Chotanagpur law Colleges, Ranchi
Agiicultural / Forest Vniversity / College
Birsa Agriculture University Kanke Ranchi
Faculty of Forestry Sciences Kanke Ranchi
Birsa Institute of Technology. Sindri, Dhanbad
Indian School of Mines. Dhanbad
Birla Institute of Technology. Mesra
Faculty of Agriculture Engineering. Kanke
Regional Institute of Technology. Jamshedpur
Medical Colleges / Institutions
Patliputra Medical Colleges. Dhanbad
Rajendra Medical College. Ranchi
Hospital for Mental Diseases. Kanke
MGM Medical College. Jamshedpur
Ranchi Veterinary College, Kanke
Jharkhand Veterinary College, Kanke
Volerinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Kanke
College of Nursing. Rajendra Medical College and Hospital, Ranchi
Yogda Satsang Homeopathic College. Ranchi
Homeopathic College and Hospital. Mihijam
National Metallurgical Laboratory. Jamshedpur
Central Mining Research Institute. Dhanbad
Indian Lac Research Institute. Namkum
Central Institute of Psychiatry. Kanke
Research and Development Centre for Iron and Steel. Ranchi
There are number of good Educational and Technical Institutions in the state:
Educational and Technical Institutions:
Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra. Ranchi
Regional Institute of Technology. Jamshedpur
Bihar Institute of Technology. Sindri
Indian School of Mines. Dhanbad
National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology, Ranchi
M G M Medical College. Jamshedpur
Patliputra Medical College. Dhanbad
Rajcndra Medical College. Bariatu
Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital. Dhumka
Singhbhum Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Jamshedpur
In 1998, a society called SPEED (State Programmed for Elementary Educational Development) was formed to implement Janshala in Bihar. On 31 March 2001. The programmed came under Jharkhand, as both districts in which, the programme was operational had become part of the new state At present, the programme is implemented by Jharkhand Education Programme Council (JEPC). Ranchi.
The programme has been implemented tn three phases. In the first phase, from 1998 to 1999, two blocks of both Giridith and Deoghar districts were covered. In the second phase, from 1999 to 2000, three more blocks of both districts were added. In the current phase, the programme is operational in all 7 blocks of Deoghar and 12 blocks of Giridih. Since 2001, the reach of the programme has been extended to cover all blocks of these districts. Access to schools is a severe problem in both the districts, where large numbers of children are out of school and working. In Giridith, only 66 % of the villages have access to primary schools.
An important feature of Janshala in Jharkhand is that it is working within the existing educational structure of the state. At the same time, community empowerment has been the main strength of the programme. Other main features include capacity building of teachers and women’s participation and empowerment.
From the very beginning. Janshala functionaries realised that the only way to effect any sustainable improvement in the quality of education was to bring the community closer to the school system. this was achieved through community sensttisation and mobilisation, community participation and support, and community ownership and sustainability.
Systematic activities were carried out to achieve the first stage of community empowerment. As a first step, a community sensitisation and mobilisation ream (CSMT) was formed for generating awareness and community involvement in the management of schools.
The blocks were entrusted with the task of identifying the mobilising groups and NGOs to participate in a workshop. Individual or voluntary groups interested in mobilising and sensitising the community were also invited to attend the workshop.
A Community Sensitisation and Mobilisation Exercise (CSME) was conceptualised as a 20-day module with two aspects-environment building and forming and training of village committees. The CSMT conducted field visits. With the help of local youths called Uthpreraks. they conducted awareness campaigns through posters, banners, distribution of pamphlets, padyatras. streetplays, folk music and puppet shows; and meetings and conferences at all levels, involving government officials and NGOs.
In the third stage, the Uthpreraks collected detailed data from every village and conducted a school mapping exercise to obtain a rough estimate of the educational status of the particular village or tola. The data was recorded and tabulated, and is now available in the form of the micro-planning report.
Subsequently, the CSMT. with the help of the Uthpreraks. invited people in the “feeding area” of every government school for a meeting and elected a 15-member village education committee (VEC).
In villages where access to schools was difficult. Prerak Dals (motivating groups) were formed, who took the initiative to provide alternative schooling facilities. An essential qualification to become a VEC member is regular attendance of the member’s child. The VEC is headed by a chairperson and vicechairperson, elected with the consensus of VEC members. One-third of the members are women.
Selected VEC members are given training by the C SM ? the training has an in-depth focus on effective planning with regard to enrolment retention, maintenance of schools, school management, and other issues regarding education.
The social mobilisation campaign took a very long time to complete, but the dividends have been invaluable. Effective CSM exercise has provided an ideal platform for the functionaries to move to the second stage of community empowerment, i.e community participation and support.
After the completion of the first stage, the community became involved in all school activities, thereby extending its support to fulfil the various needs of the school.
Besides a committee at the school level, two other committees, one at the panchayat level and another at the block level, have been set up to increase community participation and ensure its proper representation at every level. These committees are the Panchayat Education Committee (PEC |. comprising one member elected from every VEC of the particular panchayat, and the Block Education Committee (BEC), formed by selecting one member from every panchayat in a block The VEC holds monthly meetings presided over by the chairman to review the progress of the school, as well as to formulate plans for its advancement. The PEC also holds monthly meetings, while the BEC meetings are held every quarter.
Teachers have also been posted as resource persons (RPs) at the district and block levels to facilitate community empowerment. They organize awareness programmes, give further training if needed and hold meetings with government education officers to discuss problems related to their schools.
The VEC is given a grant of Rs 3000 per annum for school improvement The basic purpose of giving annual funds to the VEC is to empower and motivate them and to instill in them a sense of responsibility, as well as association, with the school.
Community ownership and sustainability
During this phase, the community members visit the schools for overall inspection, as well as to ensure that both teachers and students attend school regularly. They also help in bringing out-of-school children back to the school as well as track down absentees; provide support in the form of “physical labour” such as cleaning the schools, maintaining the gardens, constructing approach roads to the schools, painting the schools,etc.
Community members also donate material for construction and repair of classrooms as well as other articles which can be utilised in the school.
Quality improvement in schools
Training is one of the most critical means of empowering teachers. Prior to Janshala. instances of primary school teachers being given in-service training were rare. This not only affected the quality of teaching adversely, but also lowered the motivation level and involvement of teachers. Janshala adapted the UJALA training module developed under the Bihar Education Project (BEP). Almost the entire target teacher population-2470 primary school teachers—was administered training. As a result of these efforts, approximately. 88 per cent of teachers in Deoghar district have been trained. The training module focuses on increasing community contact, training in gender-sensitive teaching methods, developing communication skills and effective use of teaching aids. The module follows the interactive methodology, ensuring active participation of all teachers Some of the important aspects stressed in these modules are activity-based approach, teaching-learning materials (TLMs), and multi- grade and multilevel teaching. Teachers are trained to follow the activity-based approach. They are also taught to make the learning environment interesting through activities, which help the child find joy and meaning in the learning process. The teachers are trained to design learning activities to correspond with the child’s developmental stages.
Teacher Training Centres
Teachers are trained at three teacher training centers, two at Deoghar and one at Giridih. Established primarily to train teachers from the project schools, these centers at times also provide training to teachers of community-based schools (CBS) and women community workers(WCW). As part of this exercise, teachers who had the talent to train were selected. Thereafter, a workshop was conducted to screen suitable and appropriate Master Trainers (MTs) from the group. The MTs conduct further training at the BRCs. So far. 12- 15 MTs have been selected from each district.
Teachers often use representative teaching-learning materials called TLM to illustrate new words, as well as abstract relationships and concepts. Teachers are provided a sum of Rs 500 to buy materials to make TLMs. This serves as a motivating factor for teachers and also helps to make the learning process joyful and interesting Teachers arc given special training in understanding the various uses of TLM and its importance in the learning process.
Cluster Resource Centres
In order to ensure that teachers get enough opportunity to share and reflect upon their experiences. Cluster Resource Centres (CRCs) have been constituted at various sub-block levels. Regular monthly experience-sharing meetings are held at these centres. These meetings facilitate the process of planning classroom activities, identifying classroom problems and exploring possible solutions in a participative manner. At times these monthly meetings also serve as refresher training programmes for teachers.
Some of the activities that take place during the monthly meeting of teachers at the Cluster Education Centres (CECs) are lesson demonstrations, planning of activities. TLM preparation,discussions on problem areas identified by the teachers, etc. At times, issues like shortage of teachers and interaction with parents and VECs.
In every training programme, efforts are made to invite teachers from adjoining schools so as to encourage them to keep in touch after completion of their training programme, and to form a cluster. In a training session, approximately 30-35 teachers from 8-12 schools are invited. Close interaction during the residential training programme ensures that a strong cluster is formed. A Cluster Coordinator is selected from amongst the group and regular cluster meetings are held at the Cluster Education Centre every month. These meetings are also attended by the RP and BRC. Every two months, field visits are conducted by the RP along with the CRC. CEC coordinators are given fiveday training by the RPs at the block level, with modules on leadership, motivation as well as various aspects of pedagogy.
Micro-planning revealed that there were several habitations without school within a radius of one km. Moreover, certain habitations had a primary school within this radius, but were still not accessible to children because of. physical and social barriers. Community-based schools are an important initiative to improve children’s access to
Community-based schools (CBSs) and alternative schools were suggested to tackle the problem of inaccessibility. The most important aspect of these schools is the manner in which they are established and the manner in which they function, all with the active involvement and participation of the community. Over 400 CBSs with 2300 children (an average of40-50 children per school), have been opened under the programmes in the two districts of Jharkhand. CBSs provide the opportunity of quality education to a large number of disadvantaged children in remote areas. Around 90% of the students enrolled in CBSs would not have had access to education, but for this programme.
The activities of the community mobilisation team also included the formation of Prerak Dais (motivating groups) in unserved habitations, to generate demand in the community through mobilisation exercises. Over a period of time, as the role of the Prerak Dais grew, they were redesignated as Sahyog Dais (companions). Initiatives were also taken to form women’s group, which primarily included mothers whose children did not attend schools. These women’s groups, called Mata Samitis (mothers’ committees) were given the responsibility of initiating and managing CBSs.
There are now around 500 Mata Samitis in Deoghar and Giridih. The samiti members are trained by Resource Persons and Women Empowerment Workers (WCWs). before they are entrusted the task of managing a school. The training creates awareness about the main issues in education, the importance and the process through which village members are to be initiated into the functioning of the schools, steps involved in opening a bank account, and most importantly the need to uphold a sense of gender equality Around 55 percent of the Mata Samiti members in Deoghar have received formal training and others have obtained guidance and support from WCWs. Moreover, each school is also given a grant of Rs 4100. and the chairman of the Mata Samiti or Sahyog Dais is responsible for using this money.
Teachers in CBS
The minimum qualification of a CBS teacher is matriculation, and females are preferred, so as to promote education among girls. However, the criteria are flexible. The teachers are given residential training of 30 days. During the first 15 days, theoretical background in subjects such as education, child development, women’s empowerment and girl’s education is taught. During the subsequent days, they are trained in new teaching methods The teachers have monthly meetings with the District Resource Person (DRP) and Block Resource Person (BRP) to plan their teaching schedule and share their problems and experiences.
Children in CBS
Most CBS schools are single-classroom, single-teacher schools with children of different age groups. Therefore, multi-grade, multi-level teaching is a necessity. The children are assessed in many different ways throughout the academic year and teaching is joyful and activity based. The schools provide an environment which encourages self- expression in children in different ways like articulating representing their ideas, illustrating the lessons with examples, clarifying their doubts with the teacher without any apprehension or hesitation and so. Learning is completely child- oriented. Women’s omen’s empower empowerment ment to enhance the status of women, the Women’s empowerment Programme has ensured that at least one Uthprerak out of two. in each habitation, a woman. Rules have been formulated to ensure that at least one-third of VEC members are women. It has also been made mandatory that the office of either the chairman or vicechairman should be held by a woman candidate.
The constitution of Mata Samitis has also proved to be successful in helping women come together to serve as a unit for action. Their ability to conduct tasks like running a school, holding a bank account, professionally interacting with men. Has given them the needed impetus and selfesteem for further empowerment.
The representation of women as RPs. both at the district and block levels. as well as preference given to women teachers in CBSs, has helped in enhancing the status of women in the state. Self-help groups (SHGs) are women’s groups formed with the help of WCWs to address the problem of economic hardship. SHGs aim to address issues of social and economic reform. In Deoghar these groups function with the help of a president and a secretary However, the SHGs are in the initial stages of development. They function as small banks for the community, lending people money at very low interest rates and providing loans to start small-scale businesses. Around 50 SHGs managed by various NGOs function efficiently in Giridih. These groups, although not under the direct supervision of Janshala. work in close association with WCWs.
Owing to the poor female literacy rates, girls’ education has been given primary importance in Janshala. Meena Week is one of the main programmes conducted, along with door-to- door campaigns, to promote female education.
This is a weeklong celebration conducted every year, to generate awareness about the importance of girls’ education. The spirit of festivity makes it an attractive programme for villagers. “Meena” is an animation character and represents an ordinary village girl who stands up for her rights and is bold enough to question the inequalities and discrimination faced by girls. During Meena Week, panchayat meetings to discuss the importance of girls’ education, as well as painting competitions with themes on girls’ education, are organised. Bal Sabhas are held, wherein out-of-school and in-school children exchange views and share their experiences. It has been seen that many out-ofschool children are fascinated and motivated by the experiences of in-school children and frequently express their desire to get enrolled in school. Such children are enrolled immediately.
Padyatra and rallies are conducted by the children, teachers and the community. Video shows on “Meena” and other films on themes like dowry, child marriage, harassment of women, female illiteracy, etc.. are held and bal melas are organised with stalls for game, health check- ups, singing competition, dancing competitions, etc. In these melas too. children are enrolled. At the last Meena Week in Deoghar district. 173 girls, most of them child labourers who made beedis, were enrolled in nearby schools.
Education for Women
Education, which is proved as a major explanatory factor for the development, is very much unfavorable for Jharkhand tribal women. The disadvantage index for literacy among the tribal women of Jharkhand is higher than all India i.e. 193 and 180 respectively.
A huge gap has been noticed in educational attainment between tribal and general women in Jharkhand. Eighty-nine percent of tribal women are illiterate compared to 46 percent in general women. Educational level of high school and above also shows more than eight fold gap between both group. Only 2.6 percent tribal women have completed high school and above compared to 21 percent general women. Not only tribal women are illiterate themselves, but also their husband’s educational status is very much poor. Sixty-two percent of tribal women’s husbands are illiterate compared to 23 percent among general women Mass media, which plays an important role in development and utilization of services, in this key indicator also tribal women are very less exposed. Eighty-eight percent tribal women have not been exposed to any media compared to 44 percent among general women
Major Universities in Jharkhand
Birsa Agricultural University
Birla Institute of Technology
Indian School of Mines
Siddhu Kanhu University
Vinoba Bhave University
Birsa Agricultural University; (Estd. 1980) Kanke Ranchi; Jurisdiction : Jurisdiction of the univ extends to whole of Jharkhand covering 22 Districts of the state. The Univ. has 3 constituent Colleges, besides a number of research substations. Students Enrolment (2000-2001) 222 (Men 168, Women 54). Courses of Study; FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE; BSc (Agri). M. Sc (Agril); FACULTY OF FORESTRY; B. Sc (Forestry); M. Sc. (Forestry); FACULTY OF VETERINARY SCIENCE; BVSc and AH. MVSc; Doctorate Degrees; departments of Agronomy, Soil Science. Plant Breeding and Genetics.Horticulture. Mycology and Plant Pathology and Anatomy. Pharmacology. Animal Breeding and Genetics, Parasitology, Medicine. Microbiology, Surgery. Vety Public Health and Epidemics. Pathology, Animal Nutrition. Gynae-cology and Obst, Animal Physiology. Diploma; 2 yr. diploma in Forestry after inter (Sc) with Phy, Chem, Biol/Maths.
Birla Institute of Technology ; (Deemed University); (Estd.1955); Mesra, Ranchi; Courses of Study: Undergraduate Programmes, BE; B. Pharm; BArch;BCA; BBA; Postgraduate Programmes: MBA, MCA, DCA, MSc (Information Sc); MSc (Bio-Med Instrumentation); ME (Software Engg), M. Tech (Comp Sc), M. Sc (Electronics and Tele Comm), M. Sc (Information Technology); Doctorate Degree: PhD Research facilities leading to PhD degree are available in all departments. Diplomas : Postgraduate Diploma in Comp. Application to graduates with Maths’Stat having 55% marks, of 1 year, (FT) duration. Candidates should have I year standing for part-time Courses. Selection through entrance exam.
Indian School of Mines (Deemed Lnviersity); (Esld.1967); Dhanbad; Students Enrolment (2000-2001) 584 (Men -552, Women – 32); COURSES OF STUDY : BTech Branches : Computer Science and Engg; Electronics and Instrumentation; Mineral Engg; Mining Engg; Mechanical Engg; Petroleum Engg. MSc (Tech) (Earth Sc), MTech. Branches Drilling Engg, Fuel Engg, Maintenance Engg and Tribol, Mineral Engg, Mine planning and Des, Opencast Mining. Longwall Mine Mechanisation, Indl Engg and Mgt. Petroleum Engg. Comp App.
Environmental Sc and Engg. MBA; Research Degree: 1 yr MPhil course in App Geol, App Geophy. App Maths. App Chem; DOCTORATE DEGREE PhD The School awards PhD degree in the deptts of App Geol, App Geophy. Mining. Petroleum Engg, App Phy, App Maths .App Chem. Mining Machinery, Management Studies. Mineral Engg. Fuel Engg. Drilling Engg and Electronics. Eligibility Master’s degree holders in the branch concerned can supplicate for the degree. Candidates with Bachelor’s degree in Petroleum or Mining Engg or equivalent can also register Candidates should have obtained II Cl in a relevant field in the qualifying exam. Duration 2 years (minimum) and 7 yrs (maximum).
Ranchi University; (Estd; l960);Ranchi Jurisdiction; The jurisdiction of the univ extends to South Chotanagpur Division consisting of districts of Ranchi, Gumla, lohardaga. Palamau and Singhbhum. The area of North Chotanagpur Division (earlier under the Ranchi University) comprising districts of Hazanbag, Chatra, Koderma, Bokaro, Giridih and Dhanbad has been transferred to Vinoba Bhave University w.e.f. 17 September 1992. Enrolment 90,000 (Approx); Courses of Study : FACULTY OF ARTS; BA, BA (Hons); MA; FACULTY OF COMMERCE; BCom, BCom(Hons). MCom; FACULTY OF EDUCATION: BEd; MEd; FACULTY OF ENGINEERING; BSc (Engg); MSc (Engg); BTech (Manufacturing Engg); MTech (Mgt Engg. Foundry-Farge Tech), MTech; MTech (PT); MCA; FACULTY OF LAW, LLB; FACULTY OF MEDICINE: MBBS; MD. MS. MD(Psychiatry); BSC Nursing Post Certificate; FACULTY OF SCIENCE: BSc. BSc (Hons); MSc; Research Degree : MPhil; Doctorate Degree : The univ awards PhD degree in the Faculties of Arts, Science, Education, Commerce, Law, Medicine and Engg. There is also a provision of awarding DLitt and DSc Degrees. Diplomas ,and Certificates: 2 yrs PG Diplomas Home Sc; Journalism Medical and Social Psy after degree in Psy; Psychiatric Social Work after Master Degree in Anthro/ Psy/Sociol; Psychological Med after MBBS. 1 year Dip in Psychiatric Nursing(DPN)after Dip in Gen Nursing or A Grade Cert. 2 yr Certificate in German after Jr Dip in the Lang, Med Dips DA. DCH,DCP, DGO,DLO, DMRD, DO, DTM and H Dorth. DO, DMRT after MBBS. 10 Months Post Dip in Nursing Edn and Admn and Public Health Nursing.
Siddhu Kanhu University; (Estd. 1992); Dumka; Jurisdiction: The territorial jurisdiction of the university extends over Santal Pargans Divisions of Jharkhand comprising 6 districts – Dumka, Deoghar. Godda, Sahibganj, Pakur.