Russia joined its Serbian, French, and British allies against the Central Powers of Austria, Germany, and Ottoman Turkey in August 1914 during World War I. Russia had not modernized its army even after the defeat in Russo Japanese war, and as a result, the war proved disastrous for Russia. Its casualties were far more than any other nation in the war.
The Russians were not enthusiastic about the war and the tension grew further when Tsar Nicholas decided to personally command the Eastern front in the war, Tsarina Alexandra was in charge of the governance and her German heritage made her unpopular among the people. Above all, she was greatly under the influence of the self-styled ‘holy man’ Grigori Rasputin. She dismissed elected officials on his advice and governance fell into disarray along with mounting war causalities.
The women textile workers in Petrograd led a citywide strike followed by riots over shortages of bread and fuel. Nearly 200,000 workers swarmed the streets. At first, the soldiers obeyed orders to shoot the rioters but later sided with them. The soldiers fired at their commanding officers and joined the rebellion. It forced Tsar Nicholas II to abdicate his throne. A year later revolutionaries executed Nicholas and his family.
The Tsarist rule of the Romanovs, which spanned over three centuries, had finally collapsed. The leaders of the Duma established a temporary government under Alexander Kerensky, who decided to continue with the war. This decision to continue with the war cost him support from the army as well as civilians. Meanwhile, the Social revolutionaries, competing for power, formed soviets i.e. the local councils which consisted of workers, peasants, and soldiers.JPSC Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for JPSC Prelims and JPSC Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by JPSC Notes are as follows:-
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