Three Geological divisions:
- The peninsular block
- The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains
- Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain
- Peninsualar block is made of gneisses (metamorphic) and granites (igneous).
Six physiographic divisions:
- The Northern and North-eastern Mountains
- The Northern Plain
- The Peninsular Plateau
- The Indian Desert
- The Coastal Plains
- The Islands
Northern and North-Eastern Mountains
Approximate length of the Great Himalayan range: 2500 KM. Width: 160-400 KM
Impact of Himalayas on the climate of India?
It can be divided into five sub-divisions:
- Kashmir (or Northwestern) Himalayas
- Himachal and Uttaranchal Himalayas
- Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas
- Arunachal Himalayas
- Eastern Hills and Mountains
- Ranges: Karakoram, Ladhakh, Zaskar, Pir Pinjal
- Glaciers: Baltoro, Siachen
- Passes: Zoji La (Great Himalayas), Banihal (Pir Pinjal), Photu La (Zaskar) and Khardung La (Ladakh)
- Lakes: (freshwater) Dal and Wular; (saltwater) Pangong Tso and Tso Moriri
- Pilgrimage: Vaishno Devi, Amarnath Cave, Charar-e-Sharif
- They are also famous for Karewa formations which are useful for the cultivation of Zafran (a local variety of Saffron). Karewas are the thick deposits of glacial clay and other materials embedded with moraines.
- Kashmir is located on the banks of Jhelum river.
- Meanders is a typical feature associated with the rivers in this region.
- In South, there are longitudinal valleys called duns; Jammu dun and Pathankot dun
Himachal and Uttarakhand Himalayas
- Lies between rivers Ravi and Kali
- Drained by two major river systems: Indus and Ganga
- Northernmost part is an extension of the Ladakh desert, lies in Spiti.
- Ranges: Great Himalayan Range, Lesser Himalayas (Dhaoladhar in HP and Nagtibha in Uttarakhand), Shivalik range
- Pilgrimage: Gangotri, Yamunotri, Kedarnath, Badrinath, Hemkund Sahib and the five famous prayags (Refer to Panch Prayag)
- Famous for hill stations: Dharamshala, Mussoorie, Shimla, Kaosani; Cantt.: Kasauli, Almora, Lansdowne, Ranikhet
- The important distinguishing features of this area are the ‘Shivalik’ and ‘Dun formations’.
- Important duns: Chandigarh-Kalka, Nalagarh, Dehra, Harike, Kota
- Dehradun is the largest of all duns: Length – 35-45 KM, Width: 22-25 KM
- Inhabited with the Bhotia They migrate to higher reaches (Bugyals) in summer and return to the valleys during winters.
Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas
- Between Nepal Himalayas and Bhutan Himalayas.
- Fast flowing rivers such as Tista
- Peaks: Kanchenjunga
- Tribe: Lepcha
- Has a mixed population of Nepalis, Bengalis and tribals from Central India.
- Importance: Due to the moderate slope, it is best suited for tea plantations. <India produces about 26 pc of tea in the world; second after China. Also, accounts for 12 pc of tea exports; fourth in the world.>
- Duar formations are peculiar to this region.
- From Bhutan Himalayas to Diphu pass in the east.
- Direction: Southwest to Northeast
- Peaks: Kangtu and Namya Barwa
- Rivers: Brahmaputra, Kameng, Subansiri, Dihang, Dibang and Lohit.
- These rivers are perennial and have the highest hydro-electric power potential in the country.
- Tribes: Monpa, Daffla, Abor, Mishmi, Nishi and Nagas
- These communities practice shifting cultivation known as Jhumming.
Eastern Hills and Mountains
- Direction: North to South
- Ranges: Patkai Bum, Naga hills, Manipur hills, Mizo or Lushai hills
- These are low hills
- Tribes practice Jhum cultivation
- Rivers: Barak. Most of the Nagaland rivers form a tributary of Brahmaputra. Rivers in eastern Manipur are the tributaries of Chindwin, which in turn is a tributary of the Irrawady of Myanmar.
- Lake: Loktak
- Loktak Lake: is an important lake in Manipur which is surrounded by mountains on all sides. It is the largest freshwater lake in northeastern India. Also called the only Floating Lake in the world due to floating masses of organic matter on it. It serves as a source for hydropower generation, irrigation and drinking water supply.
- Keibul Kamjao National Park located in the Bishnupur district of Manipur is the only floating park in the world and is an integral part of the Loktak Lake. Home to the endangered Manipur Eld’s Deer or Brow-antlered Deer or Sangai or Dancing Deer.
- Mizoram is also known as the ‘Molassis basin’ which is made up of soft unconsolidated deposits.
The Northern Plains
- Formed by the alluvial deposits of rivers – Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra.
- Length: 3200 KM; Width: 150-300 KM
Three main zones:
- Alluvial Plains (Khadar and Bangar)
- Narrow belt. 8-10 KM wide.
- Paralllel to Shivalik at the break-up of the slope. Hence, streams and rivers deposit heavy rocks (and at times disappear) in this zone.
- South of Bhabar. 10-20 KM wide.
- Rivers re-emerge and create marshy and swampy conditions known as Tarai.
- South of Tarai.
- Features of mature stage of fluvial erosional and depositional landforms such as sand bars, meanders, ox-bow lakes and braided channels. Riverine islands in Brahmaputra.
- Brahmaputra takes a turn an almost 90 degree turn at Dhubri (Assam) before entering Bangladesh.
- Bounded by the Delhi ridge, Rajmahal Hills, Gir range and Cardamom hills.
- Made up of a series of patland plateaus: Hazaribagh, Palamu, Ranchi, Malwa, Coimbatore, Karnataka etc.
- One of the oldest and most stable landmass of India.
- Physiographic Features: Tors, block mountains, rift valleys, spurs, bare rocky structures, hummocky hills and quartzite dykes offering natural sites for water storage.
- Black soil in western and northwestern parts.
- Bhima fault in this region has frequent seismic activity (Lathur earthquake)
- NW part also has ravines and gorges: Chambal, Bhind and Morena.
Three broad regions:
- Deccan Plateau
- Central Highlands
- Northwestern Plateau
- Bordered by Eastern Ghats, Satpura, Maikal range and Mahadeo hills
- Important ranges: WG: Sahyadri, Nilgiri, Anaimalai and Caradamom hills; EG: Javadi hills, Palconda range, Nallamala Hills, Mahendragiri hills
- EG and WG meet at Nilgiri hills.
- Highest peak: Anaimudi (2695 m) on Anaimalai hills; Dodabetta (2637 m) on Nilgiri hills.
- Rivers: Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri etc.
- Bounded by the Aravali and Satpura range.
- Relic mountains, highly denuded and form discontinuous ranges.
- Near Jaisalmer it is covered by the longitudinal sand ridges and crescent-shaped sand dunes called barchans.
- Elevation: 700-1000 m
- Banas, a tributary of Chambal, originates in the Aravalli. Other tributaries of Yamuna originate from the Vindhyan and Kaimur ranges.
- Minerals in Chotanagpur plateau.
- Extension of the main Peninsular plateau.
- Meghalaya and Karbi Anglong plateau.
- Megahalaya plateau: Garo hills, Khasi hills and Jaintia hills (named after the tribals inhabiting the region)
- Rich in minerals like coal, iron, sillimanite, limestone and uranium.
- Receives maximum rainfall from SW monsoon. Hence, Meghalaya plateau has a highly eroded surface. Cherrapuni and Myswarnam.
- Aka Marusthali
- Northwest of the Aravali hills
- Dotted with longitudinal dunes and barchans.
- Low rainfall: >150 mm per year Low vegetation cover
- Evidence that this area was under the sea during the Mesozoic era.
- Features: mushroom rocks, shifting dunes and oasis.
- Rivers are ephemeral: Luni. Brackish lakes. Inland drainage.
- Western coastal plains
- Eastern Coastal Plains
Western Coastal Plains
- Submerged coastal plain. Hence, a narrow belt. Narrow in middle and broader towards north and south.
- Ports: Provides natural conditions for the development of ports and harbours due to submergence. Kandla, Mazagaon (Mumbai), JLN port Navha Sheva, Maramagao, Mangalore, Cochin etc.
- Mumbai has the world’s largest natural harbour.
- May be divided into: Kachchh and Kathiawar coast in Gujarat, Konkan coast, Goan coast and Malabar coast.
- Rivers don’t form delta.
- Kayals (Backwaters): Found in the Malabar coast. Used for fishing and inland navigation. Every year Nehru Trophy Vallamkali (boat race) is held in Punnamada Kayal in Kerala.
Eastern Coastal Plains
- Emergent coast. Hence, less number of ports and harbours. Chennai, Vizag, Paradwip, Haldia.
- Delta formation
Two major Divisions:
- Andaman and Nicobar
- Lakshwadeep & Minicoy
Andaman and Nicobar
- Two major island groups: Ritchie’s archipelago and the Labrynth island.
- The group is divided into: Andaman in the North and Nicobar in the South.
- Andaman and Nicobar separated by the Ten Degree channel.
- Barren Island
- Peaks: Saddle Peak (N.Andaman – 738 m), Mt. Diavolo (Middle Andaman – 515 m), Mt. Koyob (S Andaman – 460 m) and Mt. Thuiller (Great Nicobar – 642 m)
- Coral deposits found
- Convectional rainfalls and equatorial type of vegetation.
Lakshadweep and Minicoy
- Entire group built of coral deposits.
- Total of 36 islands of which 11 are inhabited.
- Smallest UT
- Minicoy is the largest island
- Separated by the 9 Degree Channel, north of which is the Amini Island and to the south Canannore island.
- These islands have storm beaches consisting of unconsolidated pebbles, shingles, cobbles and boulders.
Types of soil
|1.||Alluvial Soils||22||Most fertile, Sandy loam in texture,|
|Rich in Potash, Phosphoric Acid, Lime & Organic matter|
|Deficient in Nitrogen & Humus|
|2.||Regur/Black Soils||30||Also classified as Chernozem. Clay content 50%|
|Rich in iron, lime & Aluminium|
|Poor in Nitrogen, Phosphorus & organic content|
|3.||Red & Yellow Soils||28||Known as omnibus group.|
|Rich in oxides of iron|
|Poor in Nitrogen, Phosphorus & Humus|
|4.||Laterite Soils||2.62||Not very fertile. Typical of tropical region with heavy rainfall|
|Rich in iron oxide & potash|
|Poor in nitrogen, phosphate & calcium|
|5.||Arid Soils||6.13||Rich in phosphate|
|Poor in Nitrogen & humus|
|6.||Saline Soils||1.29||Known as Usara, Reh or Kallar|
|Contain a large proportion of Sodium, Potassium & Magnesium|
|Poor in Nitrogen & Calcium|
|7.||Peaty & Organic||2.17||Normally heavy & black in colour. Highly acidic.|
|Rich in organic matter|
|Poor in phosphate & potash|
|8.||Forest Soils||7.94||Acidic with low humus content|
|Poor in potash, phosphorus & lime|
|1.||Bolton of the east||Ahmedabad|
|2.||Manchester of South India||Coimbatore|
|3.||Granary of South India||Thanjavur|
|National Parks of India|
|1.||Wandur National Park||Andaman & Nicobar|
|2.||Kaziranga National Park||Assam|
|3.||Manas National Park||Assam|
|4.||Palamau National Park||Jharkhand|
|5.||Hazaribagh National Park||Jharkhand (Rhinoceros)|
|6.||Dachigam National Park||J & K – Kashmir Stag (Hangul)|
|7.||Hemis National Park||J & K|
|8.||Kishtwar National Park||J & K|
|9.||Silent Valley National Park||Kerala|
|10.||Eravikulam National Park||Kerala|
|11.||Bandhavgarh National Park||M.P.|
|12.||Kanha National Park||M.P.|
|13.||Madhav National Park||M.P.|
|14.||Pench National Park||M.P.|
|15.||Shivpuri National Park||M.P. – Birds|
|16.||Indravati National Park||Chhattisgarh|
|17.||Keoladeo National Park||Rajasthan|
|18.||Ranthambore National Park||Rajasthan|
|19.||Desert National Park||Rajasthan|
|20.||Sariska National Park||Rajasthan|
|21.||Namdapha National Park||Arunachal Pradesh|
|22.||Marine National Park||Gujarat|
|23.||Pin Valley National Park||Himachal Pradesh|
|24.||Bandipur National Park||Karnataka|
|25.||Nagarhole National Park||Karnataka|
|26.||Bannerghatta National Park||Karnataka|
|27.||Tadoba National Park||Maharashtra|
|28.||Boriveli National Park||Maharashtra (or Sanjay Gandhi National Park)|
|29.||Balpakram National Park||Meghalaya|
|30.||Nokrek National Park||Meghalaya|
|31.||Nandan Kanan National Park||Orissa|
|32.||Chandka Elephant Reserve||Orissa|
|33.||Simlipal Tiger Reserve||Orissa|
|34.||Corbett National Park||Uttaranchal|
|35.||Rajaji National Park||Uttaranchal|
|36.||Valley of Flower N. Park||Uttaranchal|
|37.||Nandadevi National Park||Uttaranchal|
|38.||Dudhwa National Park||U.P.|
|39.||Govind National Park||U.P.|
Wildlife Sanctuaries of India
|1.||Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary||Andhra Pradesh|
|2.||Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary||Tamil Nadu|
|3.||Srisailam Wildlife Sanctuary||Andhra Pradesh|
|4.||Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary||Assam|
|5.||Kaimur wildlife Sanctuary||Bihar (largest)|
|6.||Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary||Karnataka|
|7.||Periyar Wildlife sanctuary||Kerala|
|8.||National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary||M.P., U.P & Rajasthan|
|9.||Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary||Maharashtra (Ahmednagar)|
|10.||Gomardha Wildlife Sanctuary||Chhattisgarh|
|12.||Jaldapara Wildlife sanctuary||West Bengal|
|13.||Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary||Haryana|
|14.||Raganathittu Wildlife Sanctuary||Karnataka|
|15.||Madumalai Sanctuary||Tamil Nadu|
|16.||Pulicat Sanctuary||Andhra Pradesh|
|17.||Chandraprabha Wildlife Sanctuary||U.P (Varanasi)|
|18.||Ranganthitoo Bird Sanctury||Karnataka|
|19.||Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary||Tamil Nadu|
|Breeds of Cattle|
|1.||Cow||Gir, Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Deoni (Andhra Pr.), Nagori, Rathi, Siri, Malvi,|
|Tharparkar. Exotic breeds – Holstein, Friesian, Jersey, Brown Swiss.|
|2.||Buffalo||Murrah, Bhadawari, Nagpuri, Mehsana, Jaffrabadi, Surti, Nali-Ravi.|
|3.||Sheep||Jaisalmeri, Pugal, Bikaneri, Marwari, Kathiawari.|
High Yielding Varieties of Seed
|1.||Wheat||Kalyan Sona, Sonalika, Arjun, Lerma, Sharbati Sonora, WL series.|
|2.||Rice||Padma, Jaya, IR-8, Hamsa, Krishna, Cauvery, Annapurna|
|3.||Maize||Ganga-101, Deccan Hybrid|
|4.||Jowar||CSV-1 to CSV-7|
|6.||Cotton||V-797, Hybrid 4,5, Digvijay, Varalaxmi, Sanjay, Deviraj, Virnar.|
Roads, Railways & Waterways in India
|1.||National Highways||67700 Km||Broad Guage||46800 km|
|2.||State Highways||137000 Km||Meter Guage||13000 km|
|3.||District Roads||12 Lakh Km||Narrow Guage||3100 km|
|4.||Village Roads||15 Lakh Km||Total Railway guage||63200 km|
|5.||Border Roads||30,000 Km||No of Trains||13500|
|6.||Total Roads||33 Lakh Km||No of Stations||7100|
|7.||Total Waterways||14500 Km||Electrified route||28%|
|1.||National Waterways-1||Allahabad-Haldia stretch of the Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hoogly system|
|2.||National Waterways-2||Sadiya-Dhubri stretch of the Brahmaputra system|
|3.||National Waterways-3||The west coast canal from Kottapuram to Kollam along with the|
|Udyogmandal & Champakar canals (All in Kerala).|
|Indian Railways, Headquarters|
|4.||Western Railway||Mumbai (Churchgate)|
|8.||North-East Frontier Railway||Guwahati|
|9.||East Coast Railway||Bhubaneshwar|
|10.||East Central Railway||Hazipur|
|11.||West Central Railway||Jabalpur|
|12.||Central Railway||Mumbai (V.T)|
|14.||South Eastern Railway||Kolkata|
|16.||South-East Central Railway||Bilaspur|
|1.||Naharkatiya Oilfield in Assam to Barauni refinery in Bihar via Noonmati – First pipeline|
|2.||Barauni-Kanpur pipeline for transport of refined petroleum|
|4.||Ankleshwar oilfield to Koyali refinery in Gujarat|
|5.||Mumbai High Koyali pipeline|
|6.||Hajira-Bijapur-Jagdishpur (HBJ) pipeline (1750 km). Extended from Bijapur to Dadri in U.P.|
|7.||Kandla to Luni in U.P via Delhi for LPG transport (1250 Km)|
|1.||Mumbai||Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (Sahar)|
|2.||Delhi||Indira Gandhi International Airport|
|3.||Chennai||Anna International Airport (Meenambakam)|
|4.||Kolkata||Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport|
|5.||Ahmedabad||Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel International Airport|
|6.||Amritsar||Raja Sansi Airport|
|7.||Bangalore||Needumbassery International Airport|
|8.||Goa||Dabolim International Airport|
|9.||Guwahati||Lokapriya Gopinat Bardoli International Airport|
|10.||Hyderabad||Rajiv Gandhi International Airport|
|11.||Thiruvananthapuram||Trivandrum International Airport|
|12.||Kochi||Nedumbassery International Airport.|
|India’s Foreign Trade|
|1.||Petroleum, Oil, Lubricants (POL)||27 %||1.||Gems & Jewellery||17 %|
|2.||Pearls & Precious stones||9 %||2.||Readymade Garments||13 %|
|3.||Gold & Silver||8.5 %||3.||Chemicals||11 %|
|4.||Capital goods||12 %||4.||Cotton Textile||8 %|
|5.||Electronic goods||9 %||5.||Machine & Transport||6 %|
|6.||Chemicals||7 %||6.||Agricultural Exports||13.5 %|
|7.||Edible Oils||3 %||7.|
|8.||Coke, Coal & briquettes||2 %||8.|
Fish & Fish products lead agricultural exports accounting for 3.1 % of the total value.
India’s major trading partners
Cities located on Rivers
|Industries of India|
|1.||Iron & Steel||IISCO has 3 plants at Kulti, Hirapur & Burnpur. Visvesvaraya Iron & Steel|
|Co is located on the bank of Bhadravati river in Karnataka.|
|Hindustan Steel Limited (HSL) at Bhilai, Durgapur & Bokaro.|
|2.||Cotton Textile||4% of GDP. 3.5 Crore population employed.|
|4.||Aluminum||HINDALCO (Renukoot), INDAL (Alupuram, Hirakud, Belgaum), Madras|
|Industry||Aluminium Company (MALCO, Mettur), BALCO (Korba), NALCO|
|5.||Copper Smelting||HCL is the main player & operates Khetri copper complex, Indian copper|
|complex (Ghatsila, Jharkhand), Malanjkhand copper project (Balghat,|
|M.P.), Taloja copper project (Raigad, Maharashtra).|
|6.||Jute Textile||Centers are Titagarh, budge-budge, Haora, Rishra, Serampore,|
|7.||Silk Textile||Its varieties are Mulberry (88%), Eri (9%), Tassar (2%), Muga (1%)|
|8.||Woolen Textile||Punjab, Maharashtra & U.P account for 75% production. Dhariwal is most|
|important centre. Others are Amritsar, Ludhiana, Kharar.|
|9.||Heavy Industry||Heavy Engineering Corp Ltd (Ranchi), Tungabhadra Steel Products Ltd|
|(Karnataka), Bharat heavy plates & Vessels (Vishakhapatnam)|
|Mining & allied machinery corporation (Durgapur).|
|10.||Machine Tools||HMT (Bangalore, Pinjore in Haryana, Kalamassery in Kerala, Hyderabad,|
|Ajmer & Sri Nagar), Heavy Machine Tools (Ranchi), Machine Tools Corp|
|of India (Ajmer), National Instruments Factory at Kolkata.|
|11.||Automobiles||TELCO in Mumbai, Ashok Leyland in Chennai, Bajaj Tempo (Pune).|
|Defense vehicles are produced at Jabalpur.|
|12.||Pesticides||Hindustan Insecticides Ltd (Delhi, Kerala & Rasayani, Maharashtra)|
|Hindustan Organic Chemicals Ltd (Rasayani, Raigad & Kochi)|
|13.||Cement Industry||Top manufacturing states are M.P, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pr & Raj. Jamul|
|is largest plant of M.P. & Sawai Madhopur leads in Rajasthan|
|14.||Leather Industry||India is 3rd largest player after Italy & U.S.|
|15.||Glass Industry||Bahjoi & Naini (Both in U.P.) are famous for glass sheets & Firozabad for|
|16.||Paper Industry||Rajmundhry (Andhra Pr), Ballarpur (Maharshtra), Titagarh (Bengal)|
|Bhadravati, Dandeli (Karnataka), Hoshangabad (M.P)|
|17.||Liquor Industry||U.P. has more than 50% installed capacity. Maharashtra, A.P are others.|
|18.||Aircraft industry||Important centres are HAL-Bangalore, Lucknow, Hyderabad, Others are|
|Koraput (Orissa) & Nasik.|
|19.||Railway||Chittaranjan Locomotive works (Electric engines) – West Bengal|
|Equipments||Diesel Locomotive works||– Varanasi|
|Integral Coach Factory||– Perambur, Tamil Nadu|
|Rail Coach Factory||– Kapurthala, Punjab.|
|Diesel Componets Works||– Patiala|
|Railway wheels & Axels||– Yalahanka (Banalore) & Durgapur.|
|20.||Ship Building||Hindustan Shipyard (Vishakhapatnam), Garden-Reach Shipbuilders|
|(Kolkata), Mazagaon Dock (Mumbai), Goa Shipyard (Vasco).|
|21.||Pharmaceuticals||IDPL – Rhishikesh, Hyderabad, Gurgaon, Chennai, Muzzafarpur|
|Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd – Pimpri, Pune – first public sector undertaking|
|in this industry|
|22.||Zinc & Lead||Hindustan Zinc Ltd at Debari, Rajasthan (both zinc & lead)|
|Industry||National Fertilizers Limited – Nangal|
|Hindustan Fertilizer Corp Ltd- Namrup (Assam), Durgapur.|
|Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Ltd – Trombay, Thal|
|Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, U.P & Maharashtra are the 4 largest in order.|
|24.||Heavy Electricals||BHEL (Bhopal, Tiruchirapalli, Ramchandrapuram in A.P, Jammu,|
|Bangalore, Hardwar). Ms ABL at Durgapur.|
|Hindustan Cables Factory (Rupnarainpur, Bengal), Indian Telephone|
|industries (Bangalore), Bharat Electronics (Bangalore),|
|Electronics corporation of India (Hyderabad)|
|Industrial Regions of India|
|4.||Mumbai-Pune rgion||Tata hydel stations at Khopali, Bhivpuri, Bhira & koyna|
|Solapur, Satara, Sangli & Ahmednagar|
|5.||Hugli Industrial Belt||From Naihati to Budge-Budge along left bank & Tribeni to|
|Nalpur along right bank. Other centres are Serampur, Rishra,|
|Shibpur, Kakinara, Shamnagar, Titagarh, Sodepur, Bansbaria,|
|Belgurriah, Triveni, Belur.|
|6.||Bangalore-Tamil Nadu||Pykara project supplies electricity. Salem, Madurai,|
|Tiruchirapalli, Mettur, Mysore, Mandya.|
|7.||Ahmedabad-Vadodara||Dhuvaran Thermal power station, Uttaran gas power station,|
|Ukai hydro project. Koyali, Anand, Khera, Surendranagar,|
|Rajkot, Surat, Valsad, Jamnagar|
|8.||Chhotanagpur Region||Chaibasa, Dhanbad, Sindri, Hazaribagh, Asansol, Durgapur,|
|Dalmianagar, Ranchi, Daltonganj.|
|9.||Gurgaon Delhi Meerut||Faridabad, Modinagar, Ambala, Agra, Mathura|
|Six Largest National Highways|
|National Highway||Route||Lengh Km|
|NH 6||Kolkata & Dhule via Raipur, Nagpur.||1932|
|NH 17||Panvel-Edapally (Karnataka)||1270|
|Important National Highways|
|NH-1||Delhi to Amritsar via Ambala & Jallandhar||456|
|NH-1A||Jallandhar & Uri via Jammu, Srinagar & Baramula|
|NH 22||Ambala to Shipkila on Indo china border||460|
|NH 28 A||Pipra to Nepal border||68|
|NH 35||Barasat-Bongaigaon-Indo Bangladesh border||61|
|NH 39||Numaligarh-Indo Burma border.||436|
|NH 3||Agra to Mumbai via Gwalior|
|NH 4||Chennai with Thane|
|Important Industrial Centers of India|
|Racial Profile of India|
|1.||Negritos||Only on Andamans & Nicobar|
|2.||Proto-Australoid||Includes Tribal group of central & southern India. Veddahs,|
|Maleveddahs, Irulas, Sholgas considere true representative.|
|3.||Mongoloids||Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, Lipchas, Chakmas, Murmis, Naga & Dafla|
|4.||Mediterranean||Divided into: Palaeo-Mediterranean (or Dravidians) inhabiting|
|southern parts of India & True Mediterranean inhabiting northern &|
|western part of the country.|
|5.||Brachycephals||Characterized by broad heads. Coorgis & Parsis are representative.|
|They are divided into Alpinoids, Dinarics & Armenoids|
|6.||Nordics/Indo-Aryans||Inhabit parts of north India. They are mostly represented among the|
|upper castes in northern India esp in Punjab|
Demographic Profile of India
|S.||Parameter||Top in Parameter||Bottom in Parameter|
|1.||Population||U.P, Maharasthra, Bihar, W.||Sikkim, Mizoram, Arunachal|
|(1027 million)||Bengal & Andhra Pr.||Pradesh & Goa|
|Delhi (UTs)||Lakshadweep (UT)|
|2.||Population Density||West Bengal (904), Bihar (880),||Arunachal Pr (13), Mizoram,|
|(324 per/Sq km)||Kerala, U.P, Punjab.||Sikkim|
|Delhi||Andaman & Nicobar.|
|3.||Popln Growth||Nagaland (64%), Sikkim||Kerala (9.4%)|
|4.||Growth Urban population||Arunachal Pradesh||Kerala|
|Dadra & Nagar haveli|
|5.||Growth rural population||Nagaland||Tamil Nadu|
|6.||Proportion of Urban Populn||Goa (50%)||Arunachal Pradesh (5%)|
|Dadra & Nagar Haveli|
|7.||Average size of Villages||Kerala (~15000 people)||Arunachal (~200)|
|8.||Sex Ratio (933)||Kerala (1058)||Haryana (861), Punjab &|
|Daman & Diu|
|9.||Death Rate||Orissa||Kerala (6 per thousand)|
|10.||Infant Mortality Rate||Orissa||Kerala|
|11.||Literacy||Kerala (91%), Mizoram, Goa,||Bihar (47%), Jharkhand,|
|Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh||J&K, Arunachal Pr, U.P.|
|Lakshadweep (UT)||Dadra & Nagar Haveli (UT)|