Landforms

Three Geological divisions:

  1. The peninsular block
  2. The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains
  3. Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain

 

  • Peninsualar block is made of gneisses (metamorphic) and granites (igneous).

Six physiographic divisions:

  1. The Northern and North-eastern Mountains
  2. The Northern Plain
  3. The Peninsular Plateau
  4. The Indian Desert
  5. The Coastal Plains
  6. The Islands

Northern and North-Eastern Mountains

Approximate length of the Great Himalayan range: 2500 KM. Width: 160-400 KM

Impact of Himalayas on the climate of India?

It can be divided into five sub-divisions:

  1. Kashmir (or Northwestern) Himalayas
  2. Himachal and Uttaranchal Himalayas
  3. Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas
  4. Arunachal Himalayas
  5. Eastern Hills and Mountains

Kashmir Himalayas

  • Ranges: Karakoram, Ladhakh, Zaskar, Pir Pinjal
  • Glaciers: Baltoro, Siachen
  • Passes: Zoji La (Great Himalayas), Banihal (Pir Pinjal), Photu La (Zaskar) and Khardung La (Ladakh)
  • Lakes: (freshwater) Dal and Wular; (saltwater) Pangong Tso and Tso Moriri
  • Pilgrimage: Vaishno Devi, Amarnath Cave, Charar-e-Sharif
  • They are also famous for Karewa formations which are useful for the cultivation of Zafran (a local variety of Saffron). Karewas are the thick deposits of glacial clay and other materials embedded with moraines.
  • Kashmir is located on the banks of Jhelum river.
  • Meanders is a typical feature associated with the rivers in this region.
  • In South, there are longitudinal valleys called duns; Jammu dun and Pathankot dun

 

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