Role of Various Institutions (Central, State and Other Organizations) in Promotion of Education
Education is one of the important tasks undertaken by the present modem Governments. In 1921, the department of education came under the control of Indian Minister. Between 1921-1940, there was rapid expansion of educational institutions and enrolment of students. Primary education was made compulsory.
The goals, procedures and machinery together constitute educational administration. Hence, in the words of Kandel, “Fundamentally the purpose of educational administration is to bring pupils and teachers together under such conditions as well as successfully promote the end of education.”
Today the term educational administration is comprehensively used. Educational administration is also linked with planning, organizing, directing, co-ordinating and controlling the objectives concerned with education. In the words of Mochiman Arthur, “Administration is essentially, a service activity and agency through which the fundamental objectives of the educational process may be fully and efficiently realized.”
Educational administration means the organisation structure for the administration of educational institutions. It is also connected with synonymous words like supervision, direction, guidance, coordination and control. The educational administration is also connected with personnel administration, institutional administration and financial administration.
Educational Administration in India: In India there are basically four types of institutions to look after the development of primary and secondary education. They are:
(1) Central Government,
(2) State Government,
(3) Local Bodies/Institutions, and
(4) Private Institutions.
Ministry of Human Resource Development After Independence in 1947, a full-fledged Ministry of Education was established. The Centre gave funds to the States specially for expansion and development of primary education and adult education. The Central Government educational activities expanded and the Central Ministry of Education was reorganized from time to time. It helped the States by giving funds, technical advice, and by co-ordinating the activities of various states. It also constituted various advisory councils for giving advice to the states on several matters.
Today the Central Ministry of Education is closely connected with the Ministry of Human Resource Development. It is under the control of a Cabinet Minister. It was created by the Congress Government in 1985. The Department of Education, which is under the overall control of Human Resource Development of Union Ministry, is entrusted with the greater responsibility of school education.
The Minister of Human Resource Development
The Minister of Human Resource Development is appointed by the President of India on the advice of the Prime Minister. He is of cabinet rank. He is assisted by a Minister of State and a Deputy Minister. The main functions of the Minister for Human Resource Development are framing the educational policies, and executing the policies and ensuring uniformity in the method of education in various states. The Ministry also allocates available funds to different states for the development of education.
Secretary: Ministry of Human Resource Management The Secretary is the administrative head of the department. He supervises and controls the department. All files are routed through him only. In the administration, he is assisted by two Joint Secretaries, and three educational advisers. Their main duty is to tender advice on educational matters to the Minister through the Secretary. These advisers are assisted by Deputy Secretaries, Assistant Secretaries and Undersecretaries, holding charge of education. Three other Directors also assist him in the administration. The work of the Ministry is allotted to administrative officers.
They are responsible for the implementation of educational policies as well as execution of the decisions of the Government. The Ministry of Human Resource Development presently is concerned with about fifty subjects related to education. The following are some ofthe most important subjects:
1. School Education
2. Higher Education
3. Technical and Professional Education
4. Physical Education
5. Youth Welfare
6. Educational Research
8. Co-operation with UNESCO
9. Exchange Programme, and
10. Cultural Affairs.
Important Advisory Bodies
There are some other important bodies (Advisory Councils and Statutory Organizations) of the Central Government to discharge its functions and responsibilities in the field of education. They are:
1. Central Advisory Board ofEducation (CABE)
2. Central Board ofSecondary Education (CBSE), and
3. National Council ofEducational Research and Training (NCERT)
Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE)
This Board was established in 1920. The main function of the Board was to give advice to the provincial governments. Unfortunately this Board was abolished in 1923. Basing on the recommendations of the Hartog Committee (1928) again the Board came into existence in 1935. Keeping in view the development of education in India, Central Government should play an important role in the educational restructuring. In this way this Board also played an important role in the educational system.
Composition of the Board
The Board consists of the following functionaries and is headed by the Ministry of Human Resource Development.
Chairman: Minister of Human Resource Development
Members of the Board:
1. Minister of state of Human Resource Development
2. Deputy Minister of Human Resource Development
3. Education Ministers of all States
4. One Representative of each Union Territory
5. Two Rajya Sabha Members
6. Four Lok Sabha Members
7. Two Members of Inter-University Board
8. Two Members of All India council of Technical Education (AICTE)
9. One Member from Indian Council of Technical Education (ICTE)
10. One Member from Medical Council of India (MCI)
11. Sixteen Ex-Officio Members
12. Sixteen Academicians (Nominated by the Government of India) and
13. Member-Secretary (Educational Adviser) Government of India
Tenure: 3 Years (Except for Ex-Officio Members)
Educational Secretary of the Government of India prepares the agenda with the help of Member Secretary.
The most important functions of the Central Advisory Board of Education are:
1. To give advice on any educational matter which was referred to the Board by the Government of India or State Government.
2. Getting any information and giving report on the effective functioning of education in India, and
3. Examining the information received by the Board and evaluating the information in an appropriate manner and giving recommendations to the Government of India or State Government.
However, the recommendations made by the Board are only advisory and not binding on the Central Government.
Central Board of Secondary Education
This board has been playing an important role towards improvement of educational standards, particularly in Secondary education, by changing the syllabus and text books from time to time to meet the changing needs of the society and thereby of the students. This Board is also concerned with better methods of teaching and evaluation. Some of the important activities of the Board are, bringing changes in the examination system and conducting Orientation Courses to the teachers for the enrichment of their knowledge.
Another important function of the Board is to conduct different types of examinations at National level relating to Secondary School level, All India Higher Examinations, Higher Secondary Technical Examinations, Matriculation Examinations, etc.
National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)
The NCERT came into existence in 1961. The composition of the Council is as follows:
Chairman : The Minister for Human Resource Development
1. Four Vice-Chancellors of different Universities (one from each zone) nominated by the Government of India (One Representative of each State and Union Territory)
2. All States and Union Territory Education Ministers (or his representatives) in case ofDelhi the Chief Executive Councillor.
3. Two Ex-officio Members – Chairman, UGC; Secretary, Ministry of Human Resource Development, and
4. Twelve Members nominated by the Government of India. Among them not less than four members must be school teachers.
Organisation: There is a Director and Joint Director of the Council. These are assisted by some other personnel to look after the day-to-day administration of the council.
Functions of the Council
The most important functions performed by the Council are:
1. Formulation and implementation of Policies and Programmes relating to the School Administration.
2. Conducting the Research work, Pilot projects, Training programmes and Extension activities. 3. Maintaining the relationship between Ministry of Human Resource Development Department and the State Education Departments, and
4. Publishing Text books, Periodicals and some other Educational Literature for the benefit of the students.
Role of Central Government:
Since independence the Central Government has started spending increasing amount of money on education. The Central Govt. gives grant-in-aid to states, universities and special institutions in order to help those to discharge their educational obligations. It gives special grants to back-ward states in order to equalize them with other states. It finances the centrally administered areas and gives scholarships and stipends under the various scholarship schemes.
The contributions of the Central Government and State Governments have increased from time to time.
Following are the important reasons for this increase:
1. The Central Government must assist the bank-ward states for providing better educational opportunities.
2. The Central Government must assist the state in realizing the constitutional provisions for providing compulsory primary education in the age group 6 to 14 years.
3. The Central Government has large resources for collecting finances.
4. Central funds must be utilized for providing equality of opportunity.
The Central Government assists the states for educational development in three ways:
1. Central Government performs educational functions through NCERT, UGC, Central Universities, Central Schools organizations etc.
2. Central Government sponsors schemes fully financed by it but implemented by the States.
3. Central Government partially finances some programmes, planned and implemented by the State Governments.
Role of State Governments in Educational Financing:
Education in India is a state responsibility and the bulk of educational expenditure.
The Finance Commission transfers adequate resources at the end of each Plan to each State under:
(a) Share in Income-tax,
(b) Share in excise, and
(c) Lumb-sum grant-in-aid.
The state recognizes schools and other institutions run by private bodies in accordance with set rules and regulations. It also provides them with suitable aids and grants to run efficiently and effectively. Financial aid is also given to Universities, functioning in the state.
Role of Local Bodies in Educational Financing:
Local Bodies like Municipalities, Boards, District bodies, Zilla Parisads and Panchayats run schools in their respective area. They appoint staff, provide equipment and finance to the these schools through local taxes and grants from the State Government. Such educational institutions are directly under the control of these Local Bodies.
For meeting the expenditure, the school committees should receive:
(1) A certain proportion of the income of the local village panchayat and
(2) A grant-in-aid fixed on the basis of equalisation.
State grants to local bodies on account of primary education should be based on a combination of the proportional grants, a special grant for backward areas and specific purpose grants. It would be in the interest of education to make it obligatory on municipalities to earmark a specified proportion of their net revenue for primary education. All funds thus earmarked for Primary Education should be entitled to receive grant-in-aid according to rules.
A cess on land revenue should be universally levied in all areas and that the legislation on the subject should provide for the minimum and maximum rates of such levy. In the village panchayats, as in the municipalities, a portion of the total revenue should be earmarked for Primary Education.