Automobile Industries of India
The Indian auto industry became the 4th largest in the world with sales increasing 9.5 per cent year-on-year to 4.02 million units (excluding two wheelers) in 2017. It was the 7th largest manufacturer of commercial vehicles in 2017.
The Two Wheelers segment dominates the market in terms of volume owing to a growing middle class and a young population. Moreover, the growing interest of the companies in exploring the rural markets further aided the growth of the sector.
India is also a prominent auto exporter and has strong export growth expectations for the near future. Automobile exports grew 15.54 per cent during April 2018-February 2019. It is expected to grow at a CAGR of 3.05 per cent during 2016-2026. In addition, several initiatives by the Government of India and the major automobile players in the Indian market are expected to make India a leader in the two-wheeler and four wheeler market in the world by 2020.
Domestic automobile production increased at 7.08 per cent CAGR between FY13-18 with 29.07 million vehicles manufactured in the country in FY18. During April 2018-January 2019, automobile production increased 9.84 per cent year-on-year to reach 26.26 million vehicle units.
Overall domestic automobiles sales increased at 7.01 per cent CAGR between FY13-18 with 24.97 million vehicles getting sold in FY18. During April 2018-January 2019, highest year-on-year growth in domestic sales among all the categories was recorded in commercial vehicles at 22.79 per cent followed by 14.79 per cent year-on-year growth in the sales of three-wheelers.
Premium motorbike sales in India crossed one million units in FY18. During January-September 2018, BMW registered a growth of 11 per cent year-on-year in its sales in India at 7,915 units. Mercedes Benz ranked first in sales satisfaction in the luxury vehicles segment according to J D Power 2018 India sales satisfaction index (luxury).
Sales of electric two-wheelers are estimated to have crossed 55,000 vehicles in 2017-18.
Major Manufacturers in Automobile Industry
- Maruti Udyog Ltd.
- General Motors India
- Ford India Ltd.
- Eicher Motors
- Bajaj Auto
- Daewoo Motors India
- Hero Motors
- Hindustan Motors
- Hyundai Motor India Ltd.
- Royal Enfield Motors
In order to keep up with the growing demand, several auto makers have started investing heavily in various segments of the industry during the last few months. The industry has attracted Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) worth US$ 20.85 billion during the period April 2000 to December 2018, according to data released by Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP).
Some of the recent/planned investments and developments in the automobile sector in India are as follows:
- Ashok Leyland has planned a capital expenditure of Rs 1,000 crore (US$ 155.20 million) to launch 20-25 new models across various commercial vehicle categories in 2018-19.
- Hyundai is planning to invest US$ 1 billion in India by 2020. SAIC Motor has also announced to invest US$ 310 million in India.
- Mercedes Benz has increased the manufacturing capacity of its Chakan Plant to 20,000 units per year, highest for any luxury car manufacturing in India.
- As of October 2018, Honda Motors Company is planning to set up its third factory in India for launching hybrid and electric vehicles with the cost of Rs 9,200 crore (US$ 1.31 billion), its largest investment in India so far.
- In November 2018, Mahindra Electric Mobility opened its electric technology manufacturing hub in Bangalore with an investment of Rs 100 crore (US$ 14.25 million) which will increase its annual manufacturing capacity to 25,000 units.
The Government of India encourages foreign investment in the automobile sector and allows 100 per cent FDI under the automatic route.
Some of the recent initiatives taken by the Government of India are –
- The government aims to develop India as a global manufacturing centre and an R&D hub.
- Under NATRiP, the Government of India is planning to set up R&D centres at a total cost of US$ 388.5 million to enable the industry to be on par with global standards
- The Ministry of Heavy Industries, Government of India has shortlisted 11 cities in the country for introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) in their public transport systems under the FAME (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid) and Electric Vehicles in India) scheme. The government will also set up incubation centre for start-ups working in electric vehicles space.
- In February 2019, the Government of India approved the FAME-II scheme with a fund requirement of Rs 10,000 crore (US$ 1.39 billion) for FY20-22.
Following are the achievements of the government in the past four years:
- Number of vehicles supported under FAME scheme increased from 5,197 in June 2015 to 192,451 in March 2018. During 2017-18, 47,912 two-wheelers, 2,202 three-wheelers, 185 four-wheelers and 10 light commercial vehicles were supported under FAME scheme.
- Under National Automotive Testing And R&D Infrastructure Project (NATRIP), following testing and research centres have been established in the country since 2015
- International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT), Manesar
- National Institute for Automotive Inspection, Maintenance & Training (NIAIMT), Silchar
- National Automotive Testing Tracks (NATRAX), Indore
- Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI), Pune
- Global Automotive Research Centre (GARC), Chennai
- SAMARTH Udyog – Industry 4.0 centres: ‘Demo cum experience’ centres are being set up in the country for promoting smart and advanced manufacturing helping SMEs to implement Industry 4.0 (automation and data exchange in manufacturing technology).