DMPQ- Explain the main Applications of tissue culture.

Applications of tissue culture

Rapid Clonal Propagation

A clone is a group of individuals or cells derived from a single parent individual or cell through asexual reproduction. All the cells in callus or suspension culture are derived from a single explants by mitotic division. Therefore, all plantlets regenerated from a callus/suspension culture generally have the same genotype and constitute a clone. These plantlets are used for rapid clonal propagation.

Soma-clonal Variation

Genetic variation present among plant cells of a culture is called soma-clonal variation. The term soma-clonal variation is also used for the genetic variation present in plants regenerated from a single culture. This variation has been used to develop several useful varieties.

Transgenic Plants

A gene that is transferred into an organism by genetic engineering is known as transgene. An organism that contains and expresses a transgene is called transgenic organism. The transgenes can be introduced into individual plant cells. The plantlets can be regenerated from these cells. These plantlets give rise to the highly valuable transgenic plants.

Induction and Selection of Mutations

Mutagens are added to single cell liquid cultures for induction of mutations. The cells are washed and transferred to solid culture for raising mu ant plants. Useful mutants are selected for further breeding. Tolerance to stress like pollutants, toxins, salts, drought, flooding etc. can also be obtained by providing them in culture medium in increasing dosage. The surviving healthy cells are taken to solid medium for raising resistant plants.

Resistance to Weedicides

It is similar to induction of mutations. Weedicides are added to culture initially in very small concentrations. Dosage is increased in subsequent cultures till die desired level of resistance is obtained. The resistant cells are then regenerated to form plantlets and plants.

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