The Congress was on the brink of split. The 1907 session was to be held at Nagpur. But Nagpurwas the stronghold of Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The moderates were aware that the local delegateswould raise the issues in favor of the extremists. So, Gopal Krishna Gokhle got the venuechanged and the new venue was Surat which was a stronghold of the Congress.
The 1907 Surat session was held at the bank of the Tapti river in Surat.The Extremist camp was led by Lal Bal and Pal and the moderate camp was led by GopalKrishna Gokhle. The Surat session was presided by Dr. Rash Behari Ghosh.The congress met in an atmosphere of anger and resentment in this session. Dr. Rash BehariGhosh was elected but the extremists had an objection to this election. Initially the extremistsdominated the session but soon they accepted Dr. Rash Behari Ghosh as president and offeredto cooperate. But the session was suspended. Congress got split.
By the time, the next session of Congress was held in Madras in 1908 under Dr. Rash BehariGhosh, it was the extremist camp that was facing the Lathis and arrest by the BritishGovernment who was now in its comfortable position as Congress was divided.