DMPQ- Explain how linguistic issues became a huge challenge during consolidation of India

. Just after independence Justice Dhar Commission or Linguistic Provinces Commission of 1948 and another committee JVP Committee in the same year headed by Jawahar Lal, Vallabhai Patel and Pattabhi Sitaramayya advised against creation of states on linguistic lines and instead they recommended creation of states on the basis of administrative convenience for unity, security and economic development of the nation. However, demand for linguistic reorganization of certain regions became vociferous and especially of a Telugu speaking region of Andhra out of Madras province. JVP report acknowledged this demand, but also highlighted that Madras city was a contentious area for the two sides.

In a dramatic turn of events, in October 1952 a popular freedom fighter Patti Sriramalu died as a result of his 58 day long hunger strike in support of separate Andhra and rioting and protests ensued following which government hurriedly announced creation of Andhra on linguistic lines out of existing Madras province and Tamil Nadu was also created. As a result of it, many other demands also made and government was forced to appoint ‘State Reorganization Commission’ headed by Faiz Ali, K M Panikkar and Hridyantah Kunzru in 1953 to look into the issue and it submitted its report in 1955. It recommended that states should primarily be reorganized on linguistic lines and secondary only on the basis of administrative convenience. It also recommended non-reorganization of Bombay and Punjab. It drew some adverse reaction, but government implemented its recommendations with some modifications and brought ‘State Reorganization Act, 1956’. It led to creation of 14 states and 6 UTs. Strong opposition was witnessed in Maharashtra and 80 people were killed in clashes. Government decided to reorganize Bombay as Gujarat and Maharashtra with Bombay as centrally administered unit. But it too was opposed and finally after long tussle, Gujarat with Ahmadabad and Maharashtra with Bombay were formed in 1960.

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