Gondwana coal makes up to 98 per cent of the total reserves and 99 per cent of the production of coal in India. Satpuras, denudation [weathering + erosion] has exposed coal bearing Gondwana strata.The carbon content in Gondwana coal [250 million years old] is less compared to the Carboniferous coal [350 million years old][Almost Absent in India] because of its much younger age.
Gondwana coal forms India’s metallurgical grade as well as superior quality coal.
The Damuda series (i.e. Lower Gondwana) possesses the best worked coalfields accounting for 80 per cent of the total coal production in India. 80 out of 113 Indian coalfields are located in the rock systems of the Damuda series [lower Gondwana Age].
Coking as well as non-coking and bituminous as well as sub-bituminous coal are obtained from Gondwana coal fields.
Anthracite is generally not found in the Gondwana coal fields.
The volatile compounds and ash (usually 13 – 30 per cent) and doesn’t allow Carbon percentage to rise above 55 to 60 per cent.
Gondwana coal is free from moisture, but it contains Sulphur and Phosphorous.
These basins occur in the valleys of certain rivers viz., the Damodar (Jharkhand-West Bengal); the Mahanadi (Chhattisgarh-Odisha); the Son (Madhya Pradesh Jharkhand); the Godavari and the Wardha (Maharashtra-Andhra Pradesh); the Indravati, the Narmada, the Koel, the Panch, the Kanhan and many more.