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- Excessive rainfall in river catchments or concentration of runoff from the tributaries and river carrying flows in excess of their capacities.
- Backing water in tributaries at their confluence with the main river.
- Synchronization of flood peaks in the main rivers or their tributaries.
- Intense rainfall when river is flowing full.
- Poor natural drainage system.
- Landslides leading to obstruction of flow and change in the river course.
- Cyclone and very intense rainfall when the EL Nino effect is on a decline.
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