DMPQ-State the major characteristics of Alluvial Soils. Mention the geographical distribution of it across India.

Major characteristics of Alluvial Soils are as follows:

  • They are immature and have weak profiles due to their recent origin.
  • Most of the soil is sandy and clayey soils are not uncommon.
  • They vary from loamy to sandy-loam in drier regions and clayey loam towards the delta.
  • Pebbly and gravelly soils are rare. Kankar (calcareous concretions) beds are present in some regions along the river terraces.
  • The soil is porous because of its loamy (equal proportion of sand and clay) nature.
  • Porosity and texture provide good drainage and other conditions favorable for agriculture.
  • These soils are constantly replenished by the recurrent floods.

Distribution of Alluvial Soils in India

  • They occur all along the Indo-Gangetic-Brahmaputra plains except in few places where the top layer is covered by desert sand.
  • They also occur in deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, and the Cauvery, where they are called deltaic alluvium (coastal alluvium)
  • Some alluvial soils are found in the Narmada, Tapi valleys, and Northern parts of Gujarat.
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