Agroforestry is defined as a land use system which integrates trees and shrubs on farmlands and rural landscapes to enhance productivity, profitability, diversity and ecosystem sustainability. It is a dynamic, ecologically based, natural resource management system that, through integration of woody perennials on farms and in the agricultural landscape, diversifies and sustains production and builds social institutions.
India became the world’s first country to adopt a comprehensive agroforestry policy, in 2014.
o Encourage and expand tree plantation in complementarity and integrated manner with crops and livestock to improve productivity, employment, income and livelihoods of rural households, especially the small holder farmers. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
o Protect and stabilize ecosystems, and promote resilient cropping and farming systems to minimize the risk during extreme climatic events.
o Meet the raw material requirements of wood based industries.
o Reduce import of wood and wood products to save foreign exchange.
o Supplement the availability of agroforestry products (AFPs), such as the fuel-wood, fodder, nontimber forest produce and small timber of the rural and tribal populations, thereby reducing the pressure on existing forests.
o Complement achieving the target of increasing forest/tree cover to promote ecological stability, especially in the vulnerable regions.
o Develop capacity and strengthen research in agroforestry and create a massive people’s movement for achieving these objectives and to minimize pressure on existing forests.