1) Planetary Winds – The water beneath the wind forms surface water current. The pushing action of those winds makes the water flow in definite direction.
2) Rotation of Earth – the world rotates from the west to the east. As a result of the force, the permanent winds are deflected to the proper within the hemisphere and to the left within the Southern Hemisphere; consequently the ocean currents are deflected in similar manner. The Counter equatorial Currents are results of the rotation of the world.
3) Configuration of coastline – The direction & form of the lineation modify the ocean currents.
4) Ocean water temperature – The temperature of ocean water decreases from equator towards the poles. The density of water is low within the equatorial region attributable to extreme temperature. The lighter water of the equatorial region moves towards the colder and denser polar areas and contrariwise.
5) Ocean water salinity – Ocean currents on the water surface are generated from the areas of low salinity to the areas of high salinity. As an example, ocean currents ensure the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean and from the Arabian Sea to the Red Sea. Water within the polar region is cold and heavy; therefore it sinks and flows towards the equator.