The hill ranges of the Western Ghats, a global biodiversity hotspot, extend along the west coast of India from the river Tapti in the north to the southern tip of India.
- Their positioning makes the Western Ghats biologically rich and biogeographically unique – a veritable treasure house of biodiversity. The region has a spectacular assemblage of large mammals – around 30 per cent of the world’s Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) population and 17 per cent of the world’s existing tigers (Panthera tigris) call this area their home
- The Western Ghats include a diversity of ecosystems ranging from tropical wet evergreen forests to montane grasslands containing numerous medicinal plants and important genetic resources such as the wild relatives of grains, fruit and spices.
- The Western Ghats perform important hydrological and watershed functions. Approximately 245 million people live in the peninsular Indian states that receive most of their water supply from rivers originating in the Western Ghats.
- The play important role in shaping the course of Monsoon.
- They are house to various hill stations. Example Munnar.
- They are also used for Plantation agriculture which is a climate friendly industry.