All such issuances in terms of quantum to be raised, pricing is left to the company, however, regulated by the Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) which has the following objectives:
- To ensure that all companies accessing the primary market are making complete disclosures about their company and their functioning.
- Pricing has been determined through the book-building process (price-discovery mechanism by the markets).
- Reservation of shares for bulk buyers like qualified institutional buyers (QIBs) is in terms of norms that are laid down by SEBI.
- Issues are not bunched together and there is a gap between offerings being made by companies.
- There is an adequate participation of retail or small buyers in the offering.
- Interest of the small investor is completely protected in terms of allotment being made to them and in case of excess applied than that allotted then refunds by the company performed promptly within the prescribed time frame of SEBI.
An approval of an offering by SEBI should not be seen as a recommendation to subscribe but merely that the company has complied with all the stipulations of SEBI. Any investment decision in a particular offering of an individual or an institution is purely their own wisdom.
Once the process of issuance is complete, company received the money, refunds completed, it has to get their shares/bonds listed at any of the stock exchanges which will allow for trading or sale purchase of shares of the company at the stock exchanges.