DMPQ- Explain the method of Defluoridation for water purification.

Defluoridation is the downward adjustment of the level of fluoride in drinking water. Worldwide, fluoride is one of the most abundant anions present in groundwater. Fluoride is more present in groundwater than surface water mainly due to the leaching of minerals. Groundwater accounts for 98 percent of the earth’s potable water. An excess of fluoride … Read more

DMPQ- Examine the process of Live Attenuated Vaccines .

Live vaccines are derived from “wild,” or disease-causing, viruses or bacteria. These wild viruses or bacteria are attenuated, or weakened, in a laboratory, usually by repeated culturing. For example, the measles virus used as a vaccine today was isolated from a child with measles disease in 1954. Almost 10 years of serial passage using tissue … Read more

DMPQ- Explain the method of Distillation for water purification.

Distillation is a water purification method that utilizes heat to collect pure water in the form of vapor. This method is effective by the scientific fact that water has a lower boiling point than other contaminants and disease-causing elements found in water. Water is subjected to a heat source until it attains its boiling point. … Read more

DMPQ- Write a short note on Traditional methods of vaccine production.

The first human vaccines against viruses were based using weaker or attenuated viruses to generate immunity. The smallpox vaccine used cowpox, a poxvirus that was similar enough to smallpox to protect against it but usually didn’t cause serious illness. Rabies was the first virus attenuated in a lab to create a vaccine for humans. Egg-Based … Read more

DMPQ- Explain the method of Chlorination for water purification.

Chlorine is a powerful chemical that has been in use for many years to treat water for home consumption. Chlorine is an effective water purification method that kills germs, parasites and other disease-causing organisms found in ground or tap water. Water can be purified using chlorine tablets or liquid chlorine. As an off-the-shelf water purification … Read more

DMPQ- Mention the Structure and function of the spine

The spine is made up of 26 bones divided into 5 sections. These bones surround and protect the spinal cord. This includes 24 vertebrae (divided into cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions), the sacrum and the coccyx. Cervical region: These are 7 vertebrae at the top of the spine that run from the base of the … Read more

DMPQ- Define pollination and its types.

In order to form a zygote, male gametes in pollen grains have to fuse with egg in the ovule. This is achieved by the process called pollination. Pollination is the process of transferring pollen grains from the anther – male part of a flower, to the stigma – female part of a flower. Depending on … Read more

DMPQ- Explain Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems

Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems contact the treated secondary wastewater with UV light bulbs that are encased in clear housings. The UV light kills pathogenic organisms by using a germicidal photochemical wavelength. Unlike chlorination, UV leaves no residual in the wastewater with which to be concerned. Plants that use UV must either have dual UV systems … Read more

DMPQ- Mention the various applications of Robotics

Different types of robots can performs different types of tasks. For example, many of the robots are made for assembly work which means that they are not relevant for any other work and these types of robots are called Assembly Robots. Similarly, for seam welding many suppliers provide robots with their welding materials and these … Read more

DMPQ- What are the threats for Energy security of India?

In the 60s and 70s, developed nations like the US, UK, Germany, France and Japan were racing ahead by developing newer technologies and consumer products that were change lifestyles leading to a shift from conservative to indulgent energy consumption. Everything seemed fine until leading oil producing nations, grouped under OPEC and led by the largest … Read more

DMPQ- What do you understand by the Risk of nuclear proliferation

During the past decade, the United States and Russia have joined in a number of efforts to reduce the danger posed by the enormous quantity of weapons-usable material withdrawn from nuclear weapons. Other countries and various private groups have assisted in this task. But many impediments have prevented effective results, and most of the dangers … Read more

DMPQ-INS Viraat.

INS Viraat is the longest serving warship in the world. It hold the Guinness Books of record  INS Viraat was first commissioned into the British Royal Navy as the HMS Hermes on November 18, 1959, 15 years after she was laid down in June, 1944.  She served as the flagship of the Royal Navy’s task … Read more

DMPQ- Write short note on following: a) GSAT-7A b) GSAT 11

1) GSAT-7A:    GSAT-7A with a lift-off mass of 2250 kg, is a geostationary satellite carrying communication transponders in Ku-band. The Satellite is built to provide communication capability to the users over the Indian region. It was launched by the GSLV-F11 launchpad.  It is ISRO’s 7th flight with indigenous upper stage cryogenic engine.  The four liquid … Read more

DMPQ- Comment on the current status of Technology and Innovation in India.

Recognizing the crucial role of technology and innovation in economic development, India’s policy makers have taken several initiatives to promote science, technology and innovation. Various schemes have been launched to attract, nurture and retain young researchers and women scientists in the field of scientific research. Some important achievements in the field of science and technology … Read more

DMPQ:HGP Write project and significance

GP-write will include whole genome engineering of human cell lines and other organisms of agricultural and public health significance. Thus, the Human Genome Project-write (HGP-write) will be a critical core activity within GP-write focused on synthesizing human genomes in whole or in part. It will also be explicitly limited to work in cells, and organoids derived … Read more

DMPQ:How energy is generated in Hydroelectric power plant?

A hydroelectric power plant consists of a high dam that is built across a large river to create a reservoir, and a station where the process of energy conversion to electricity takes place.The first step in the generation of energy in a hydropower plant is the collection of run-off of seasonal rain and snow in … Read more

DMPQ- What is EarthBiogenome Project?

The Earth BioGenome Project, a Moon Shot for biology, aims to sequence, catalogue and characterize the genomes of all of Earth’s eukaryotic biodiversity over a period of ten years. The Earth BioGenome Project will create a new foundation for biology, informing a broad range of major issues facing humanity, such as the impact of climate … Read more

DMPQ- Write short note on Dengue Fever.

Dengue fever is a disease caused by a family of viruses that are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes.Dengue fever is caused by a virus, and there is no specific medicine or antibiotic to treat it. For typical dengue fever, the treatment is directed toward relief of the symptoms (symptomatic treatment). Dengue fever is a disease caused by a family of … Read more

DMPQ:Write a short note on chikungunya.

Chikungunya is a viral disease (genus Alphavirus) which is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes – including Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The name chikungunya originates from a verb in the Kimakonde language, meaning ‘to become contorted’. This refers to the ‘stooped’ appearance of those suffering with joint pain. Symptoms Symptoms appear between 4 and 7 days after the … Read more

DMPQ:Write a short note on Zika Virus.

Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes, which bite during the day.Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys. It was later identified in humans in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania.Symptoms are generally mild and include fever, … Read more

DMPQ- National supercomputing mission.

The Mission envisages empowering national academic and R&D institutions spread over the country by installing a vast supercomputing grid comprising of more than 70 high-performance computing facilities.  These supercomputers will also be networked on the National Supercomputing grid over the National Knowledge Network (NKN). The NKN is another programme of the government which connects academic … Read more

DMPQ- Mendel law of inheritance.

Based on his observations on monohybrid crosses Mendel proposed two general rules to consolidate his understanding of inheritance in monohybrid crosses. Today these rules are called the Principles or Laws of Inheritance: the First Law or Law of Dominance and the Second Law or Law of Segregation. Law of Dominance Characters are controlled by discrete … Read more

DMPQ- Cryogenic engine. (SCIENCE)

A Cryogenic rocket stage is more efficient and provides more thrust for every kilogram of propellant it burns compared to solid and earth-storable liquid propellant rocket stages. Specific impulse (a measure of the efficiency) achievable with cryogenic propellants (liquid Hydrogen and liquid Oxygen) is much higher compared to earth storable liquid and solid propellants, giving … Read more

Quick Revision- Contribution of Indian Scientist

Contribution of Indian  Scientist:   Scientist Achievement Homi Jehangir Baba Father of Indian Nuclear Programme, Carried out first nuclear test 1974, Atomic energy establishment was renamed Bhabha Atomic research centre. Venkatraman Ramakrishna Indian origin biologist cum scientist won nobel prize in 2009 in chemistry. He pioneered in the studies of the structure and function of … Read more


India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C45)  successfully launched EMISAT and 28 international customer satellites from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR in Sriharikota. This flight marked the first mission of PSLV-QL, a new variant of PSLV with four strap-on motors. EMISAT is a satellite built around ISRO’s Mini Satellite-2 bus weighing about 436 kg. The … Read more

DMPQ:What is Pet coke?

Petroleum coke or pet coke, is a solid carbon rich(90% carbon and 3% to 6% sulfur) material derivedfrom oil refining. It is categorized as a “bottom of the barrel” fuel.It is a dirtier alternative to coal and emits 11% moregreenhouse gases than coal and nearly 17 timesmore sulphur than coal. Petcoke is a source of … Read more

DMPQ: Write short Note on Mission Shakti

On March 27, 2019 India conducted Mission Shakti, an anti-satellite missile test, from the Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam Island launch complex. This was a technological mission carried out by DRDO. The satellite used in the mission was one of India’s existing satellites operating in lower orbit. The test was fully successful and achieved … Read more

DMPQ- DNA profiling.

DNA profiling is the technique of finding the difference between the satellite DNA regions in the genome. These regions are stretches of repetitive DNA which do not code for any specific protein. These non-coding sequences form a major chunk of the DNA profile of humans. They depict a high level of polymorphism and are the basis of … Read more

DMPQ- What is Oxytocin? What are its possible misuses?

Oxytocin is a crucial hormone used on pregnant women. It is used for the induction of labour and stop postpartum bleeding. It causes uterine contractions during labour, and helps new mothers lactate.  It has largely been in use during delivery to reduce maternal mortality. Misuse – Besides the genuine uses, Oxytocin is largely misused.  It … Read more

Quick Revision- Corrosion and its prevention

Quick revision Topic:  Corrosion and its prevention   Definition:  It is the process in which metals are slowly eaten up by the action of air moisture or chemicals. For example rusting is a form of corrosion in which iron is eaten up by the action of air and moisture and a reddish brown coating of iron oxide is formed … Read more

Quick Revision- pH scale and its day to day application

Quick Revision Topic:                pH scale and its day to day application   Definition:                  pH scale is the scale developed to measure the concentration of Hydrogen ion in a solution. Here ‘p’ in pH implies ‘potenz’ in german. The pH of a neutral solution is 7. for Acidic solution pH is less than 7 and … Read more

DMPQ: What are the administrative issues attached with Scientific research in India? (Science )

Issues attached with scientific research in India are as follows: The system is also largely run by scientists-turned-bureaucrats and “nepotism, patronage culture” are prevalent. Notably, Indian scientists perceive success as ‘becoming an administrative head in research institutions’, rather than advancing research. Also, the prevalent incompetence across the spectrum has taken a toll on ‘peer reviewing’ … Read more

Quick Revision- CATALYST

QUICK REVISION   TOPIC: CATALYST Definition:       Increases or decreases the rate of reaction without actually taking part in the reaction.   Types:      On the basis of phase of reactants: Same phase : Homogenous catalyst; eg: In Hydrogenation use of Raney nickel catalyst   Different phase : Heterogenous catalyst; Eg in Ozone depletion Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) like … Read more

Quick Revision-Allotropes of carbon

  QUICK REVISION SERIES   ALLOTROPES OF CARBON: Concept of Allotropes:       An element, in different forms, having different physical properties but similar chemical properties is known as allotropes of that element. Carbon has three well known allotropes which are graphite, diamond and buck minster fullerene. These are formed by carbon atoms. Allotrope Type Properties Graphite Each … Read more

Quick Revision- Type of Missile II

TYPES OF MISSILE AND ASSOCIATED CONCEPTS: Brahmos Supersonic cruise missile, BrahMos, is being developed with Russia as a private joint-venture. BrahMos is a multi-platform cruise missile enabling it to strike from various types of land, sea and air-based platforms. It is among the fastest supersonic cruise missiles in the world with speeds ranging between Mach … Read more

Quick Revision- Type of Missile

INTEGRATED MISSILE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME:   Missile Type Remark Prithvi Short range Surface to Surface ballistic missile – The Prithvi missile is a family of tactical surface-to-surface short-range ballistic missiles (SRBM) and is India’s first indigenously developed ballistic missile. Development of the Prithvi began in 1983, and it was first test-fired on 25 February 1988 from Sriharikota, … Read more

DMPQ- Short note on Bio toilets.

The environment-friendly bio-toilets for passenger coaches were developed jointly by Indian Railways and Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).In the bio-toilet fitted coaches, human waste is collected in bio digester tanks below the toilets and is decomposed by a consortium of anaerobic bacteria.By the process of hydrolysis, acetogenesis, acidogenesis and methanogenesis, the anaerobic bacteria converts … Read more


The GSLV-III or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III is a launch vehicle under development. Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle is a launch vehicle under development. ISRO is developing this to enable India to launch its heavier satellites without dependence on foreign rockets and providers. The GSLV MK-III is a 3 stage vehicle and will have … Read more

DMPQ: Write short note on S 400

Features of S 400: It is among the best air defence systems. It is based on a multifunctional system that can drop missiles at different speeds. It can target aircrafts (up to 5th generations), cruise and ballistic missiles by supersonic and hypersonic missiles of the system. It can address the incoming targets at a range … Read more

DMPQ:What is YAMANAKA gene? Write down its application

Yamanaka genes are group of four essential genes in our body that are responsible for regenerating old cells or growing new cells.They are also know as OSKM(Oct4,Sox2,Klf4 &Myc) & are named after Japanese scientist Shinya Yamanaka. Significance of Yamanaka Genes: Major significance is that the introduction of these genes can convert adult cells into pluripotent stem … Read more

DMPQ:What are DNA vaccine?

DNA vaccines are third generation vaccines, made up of small, circular pieces of bacterial DNA, plasmids. These plasmids are genetically engineered to produce specific antigens from a pathogen. The DNA is injected into the cells of the body where the host cell then interprets the DNA and uses it to synthesize the pathogen’s proteins. An … Read more

DMPQ: What is hybrid annuity model?

In financial terminology hybrid annuity means that payment is made in a fixed amount for a considerable period and then in a variable amount in the remaining period. This hybrid type of payment method is attached under the HAM. In India, the new HAM is a mix of BOT Annuity and EPC models. As per … Read more


RMNCH+A stands for reproductive , maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health,  approach has been launches in 2013 and it essentially looks to address the major causes of mortality among women and children as well as the delays in accessing and utilizing health care and services. The RMNCH+A strategic approach has been developed to provide an … Read more

DMPQ: . Rashtriya Kishor SwasthyaKarayakram.

In order to ensure holistic development of adolescent population, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare launched Rashtriya Kishor SwasthyaKaryakram (RKSK) on 7th January 2014 to reach out to 253 million adolescents – male and female, rural and urban, married and unmarried, in and out-of-school adolescents with special focus on marginalized and undeserved groups . … Read more

DMPQ:National Aids Control Programme.

India’s AIDS Control Programme is globally acclaimed as a success story. The National AIDS Control Programme (NACP), launched in 1992, is being implemented as a comprehensive programme for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in India. Over time, the focus has shifted from raising awareness to behavior change, from a national response to a more decentralized response … Read more

DMPQ:What are biofuels? Explain the different generation of biofuel.

Biofuels are the fuel generated from the biomass. They are the renewable source of energy. The different generation of biofuel are tabulated below: 1st Generation biofuel ·        Produced directly from the crop ·        Crop such as wheat and sugar are used ·        Stable, competitive with fossil fuel ·        Food vs Fuel criticism ·        Biodiesel and … Read more

DMPQ: What are the benefits of fast breeder reactor?

:  A fast breeder reactor (FBR) breeds more fuel than it consumes that is it produces more plutonium than it consumes while generating power. For a uranium scarce country like India, it is an attractive technology. Plutonium produced in the thermal reactors as spent fuel is ideally suitable as the fuel material for use in … Read more

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