DMPQ- Discuss the factors affecting temperature distribution of Ocean water.

The following factors affect the distribution of temperature of ocean water: Latitudes The temperature of surface water decreases from equator towards the poles because the sun’s rays become more and more slanting and thus the amount of insolation decreases poleward accordingly. The temperature of surface water between 40°N and 40°S is lower than air temperature … Read more

DMPQ- . What is Geomorphic process ? Explain Diastrophism in detail.

The endogenic and exogenic forces causing physical stresses and chemical actions on earth materials and bringing about changes in the configuration of the surface of the earth are known as geomorphic processes. Diastrophism and volcanism are endogenic geomorphic processes. A process is a force applied on earth materials affecting the same. An agent is a … Read more

DMPQ- Classify the volcanos based on the forms they develop.

Shield Volcanoes The second type may be familiar to you from news reports from Hawaii: the shield volcano. This type of volcano can be hundreds of miles across and 10,000 feet high. A shield volcano is characterized by gentle upper slopes (about 5 degrees) with somewhat steeper lower slopes (about 10 degrees). The shield volcanoes … Read more

DMPQ- “In an effort to bolster food processing sector government has announced many many initiatives in recent years.” Explain.

. Various  incentives are provided by the Government of India for promoting investment in the Food Processing sector. Some of the key incentives are outlined below: Establishment of a sustained and lasting linkage between the farmers and the processors based on mutual trust, understanding and benefits by utilizing the existing  infrastructure of cooperative, village panchayats … Read more

DMPQ- What is rainbow revolution ? Point out it’s importance for India’s Agriculture.

The earlier Green Revolution was centred on wheat and now what is required is a  comprehensive revolution, which covers the entire agriculture sector known as Rainbow  Revolution and it essentially means the following: Agricultural activities to change from subsistence and livelihood activities to as a commercial venture with focus on productivity and profitability. Crop diversification, … Read more

DMPQ- Explain the concept and significance of plate tectonic theory .

The theory of plate tectonics proposes that the earth’s lithosphere is divided into seven major and several minor plates. The movement of the plates results in the building up of stresses within the plates and the continental rocks above, which leads to folding, faulting and volcanic activity. The major plates are surrounded by fold mountains, … Read more

DMPQ- Map out the draught prone areas in India. Also mention the Institutional mechanism for draught management in India.

Droughts and floods are the two accompanying features of Indian climate. According to some estimates, nearly 19 per cent of the total geographical area of the country and 12 percent of its total population suffer due to drought every year. About 30 percent of the country’s total area is identified as drought prone. Extreme Drought … Read more

DMPQ- Discuss the pre-disaster preventive measures and post-disaster preventive measures in case of Earthquake.

Pre-disaster preventive measures Re-framing buildings’ codes, guidelines, manuals and byelaws and their strict implementation .Tougher legislation for highly seismic areas. Incorporating earthquake resistant features in all buildings in high-risk areas. Making all public utilities like water supply systems, communication networks, electricity lines, earthquake-proof. Creating alternative arrangements to reduce damages to infrastructure facilities. Constructing earthquake-resistant community … Read more

DMPQ- Briefly explain the process of weathering.

. Weathering processes are responsible for breaking down the rocks into smaller fragments and preparing the way for formation of not only regolith and soils, but also erosion and mass movements. Biomes and biodiversity is basically a result of forests (vegetation) and forests depend upon the depth of weathering mantles. Erosion cannot be significant if … Read more

DMPQ- Throw light on the intrusive volcanic landforms.

Batholiths A large body of magmatic material that cools in the deeper depth of the crust develops in the form of large domes. They appear on the surface only after the denudational processes remove the overlying materials. They cover large areas, and at times, assume depth that may be several km. These are granitic bodies. … Read more

DMPQ- . How does pressure belt’s movement affect the formation of various climatic regions across the globe?

Some air movements are the result of the systematic pressure gradients that arise from latitudinal changes in the Earth’s surface temperature. One notable example is the Hadley Cell, a movement of warm air from the tropics that rises, flows toward the poles and then cools and sinks at around 30 degrees north and south of … Read more

DMPQ- ‘Atal Tunnel’ will ensure not only economic development of the region but also secure strategic borders of India. Evaluate.

Atal Tunnel is the longest highway tunnel in the World. The 9.02 Km long tunnel connects Manali to Lahaul-Spiti valley throughout the year. Earlier the valley was cut off for about 6 months each year owing to heavy snowfall. The Tunnel is built with ultra-modern specifications in the Pir Panjal range of Himalayas at an … Read more

DMPQ- Explain the Primary Processing of Food Products.

? Unlike durable crops such as cereals, pulses and oilseeds, fresh fruits and vegetables are highly perishable, and must be marketed immediately after harvesting without primary processing. Fruit and vegetables generate large quantities of valuable waste that ends up as garbage. ? However, if they are gainfully utilized at the proper time they can become … Read more

DMPQ- Explain the importance of Farm Power.

The world is entering in the twenty-first century so that every sector of the economy should prepare itself to face the challenges of the coming century. There will be need to produce more than what is being produced and there would be greater demand for food, fiber and other commodities. The land area is limited … Read more

DMPQ- – Write a note on the Evolution of National Grid.

Grid management on regional basis started in sixties. Initially, State grids were inter-connected to form regional grid and India was demarcated into 5 regions namely Northern, Eastern, Western, North Eastern and Southern region. In October 1991 North Eastern and Eastern grids were connected. In March 2003 WR and ER-NER were interconnected . August 2006 North … Read more

DMPQ- Write a short note on Hydroelectric programme in India.

Hydropower is a renewable energy resource because it uses the Earth’s water cycle to generate electricity. Water evaporates from the Earth’s surface, forms clouds, precipitates back to earth, and flows toward the ocean. The movement of water as it flows downstream creates kinetic energy that can be converted into electricity. 2700 TWH is generated every … Read more

DMPQ- Evaluate the need of Agriculture Infrastructure Fund in contemporary India.

The scheme will support farmers, PACS, FPOs, Agri-entrepreneurs, etc. in building community farming assets and post-harvest agriculture infrastructure. These assets will enable farmers to get greater value for their produce as they will be able to store and sell at higher prices, reduce wastage, and increase processing and value addition. The Centre will bear this … Read more

DMPQ- Mention the causes behind Illiteracy in India.

Poverty Poverty is one of the foremost problems faced by India for ages. Poverty becomes a root cause of the widespread illiteracy in India. Families who struggle for their daily bread cannot afford education for their children. Apparently these people tend to make their children work to cope with the financial problems. Lack of School … Read more

DMPQ- Explain the importance of North Indians Plains.

Importance of North Indian Plains: Agricultural Productivity is high and it helps to sustain high population density. Plains are suitable for cereal crops and it ensures food security. Support to Food Processing Industries and FMCG companies. Cultural importance as the land is marked by Hindu cultural centres like Haridwar, Prayagraj, Ayodhya. It also represents the … Read more

DMPQ- Explain the significance of Western Ghats.

  The hill ranges of the Western Ghats, a global biodiversity hotspot, extend along the west coast of India from the river Tapti in the north to the southern tip of India. Their positioning makes the Western Ghats biologically rich and biogeographically unique – a veritable treasure house of biodiversity. The region has a spectacular … Read more

DMPQ- Why Assam and Bihar state are more prone to floods?

Apart from incessant rainfall during the monsoon, there are many contributory factors, natural and man-made. At the crux is the very nature of the river Brahmaputra —dynamic and unstable. Its 580,000 sq km basin spreads over four countries: China, India, Bangladesh and Bhutan, with diverse environments. The Brahmaputra features among the world’s top five rivers … Read more

DMPQ-What is a heat wave and what might be the reasons for high frequency of heat waves?

India Meteorological Department (IMD) uses temperature data from surface observatories to track heat waves. IMD also uses various numerical weather prediction models to track and predict occurrence and intensity of Heat Waves. The following criteria are used for defining severity of the heat wave: When normal Tmax is less than or equal to 40°C and … Read more

DMPQ- The average landholding in India is on decline. Discuss the ill effects of low average land holding.

As per Agriculture Census 2015-16, the average size of operational holding has declined to 1.08 hectare in 2015-16 as compared to 1.15 hectare in 2010-11. The small and marginal holdings (10 ha) are merely 0.57% of the total land holdings. Challenges faced by farmers due to fragmentation of land: Low productivity: Small and fragmented landholdings … Read more

DMPQ- What are the various high altitude adaptations in Humans?

High-altitude adaptation in humans is an instance of evolutionary modification in certain human populations, including those of Tibet in Asia, the Andes of the Americas, and Ethiopia in Africa, who have acquired the ability to survive at extremely high altitudes. People living in high altitude can  inhale more air with each breath and breathe more … Read more

DMPQ- How Tides are generated?

High and low tides are caused by the Moon. The Moon’s gravitational pull generates something called the tidal force. The tidal force causes Earth—and its water—to bulge out on the side closest to the Moon and the side farthest from the Moon. These bulges of water are high tides. As the Earth rotates, your region … Read more

DMPQ- What is Cryosphere?

The cryosphere is the frozen water part of the Earth system. Beaufort Sea, north of Alaska. One part of the cryosphere is ice that is found in water. This includes frozen parts of the ocean, such as waters surrounding Antarctica and the Arctic.   There are places on Earth that are so cold that water … Read more

DMPQ-Write a short note on Steppe Climate Vegetation.

Steppe Climatic region is also known as Temperate Grasslands. These grasslands are some of the most developed agricultural fields and are termed as grain baskets. Livestock ranching is another major activity carried out in these areas due to the availability of natural grasses. Distribution: Steppes are found in the continental interiors. They are usually found … Read more

DMPQ-Explain the working Principle of Carbon Dating Process.

Radiocarbon dating is a technique used by scientists to learn the ages of biological specimens – for example, wooden archaeological artifacts or ancient human remains – from the distant past. It can be used on objects as old as about 62,000 years. Here’s how it works. Radiocarbon dating relies on the carbon isotopes carbon-14 and … Read more

DMPQ- Explain Bio rock Technology

The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), with help from Gujarat’s forest department, is attempting for the first time a process to restore coral reefs using biorock or mineral accretion technology. A biorock structure was installed one nautical mile off the Mithapur coast in the Gulf of Kachchh on January 19. Biorock is the name given … Read more

DMPQ- Outline the salient features of the National Agro Forestry Policy, 2014.

Agroforestry is defined as a land use system which integrates trees and shrubs on farmlands and rural landscapes to enhance productivity, profitability, diversity and ecosystem sustainability. It is a dynamic, ecologically based, natural resource management system that, through integration of woody perennials on farms and in the agricultural landscape, diversifies and sustains production and builds … Read more

DMPQ- What do you understand by the term Irrigation efficiency? Explain the different types of irrigation.

The term irrigation efficiency expresses the performance of a complete irrigation system or components of the system. Irrigation efficiency is defined as the ratio between the amount of water used to meet the consumptive use requirement of crop plus that necessary to maintain a favourable salt balance in the crop root zone to the total … Read more


Warming and cooling of the Pacific Ocean is most important in terms of general atmospheric circulation. The warm water of the central Pacific Ocean slowly drifts towards the South American coast and replaces the cool Peruvian current. Such an appearance of warm water off the coast of Peru is known as El Nino. The El … Read more

DMPQ- Explain the concept of Upwelling.

When the wind blows parallel to a coastline, surface waters are pushed offshore and water is drawn from below to replace the water that has been pushed away. The upward movement of this deep, colder water is called upwelling. The deeper water that rises to the surface during upwelling is rich in nutrients. These nutrients … Read more

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